Geranial

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Geranial is an oily liquid aldehyde, also known as citral A and is an E-isomer of Citral. Citral is a pair or a combination of terpenoid which goes by the name lemonal or 3, 7-dimethyl-2, 6-octadienal.

Geranial cannot be characterized alone, and it goes hand in hand with the nature and qualities of citral. It has a rich lemon aroma.

Citral is widely available in natural form and can be extracted from several plant oils such as lemon(2-5%), Calypranthes parriculata (about 62%), Litsea lemon verbena (30-35%), lemon ironbark (26%), lemongrass (65-85%), cubeba (70-85%), Lindera citriodora (about 65%), lemon balm (11%), lime (6-9%),  petitgrain (36%), Ocimum gratissimum (66.5%), lemon myrtle (90-98%), Litsea citrata (90%), lemon tea-tree (70-80%), and orange.

As you can see that its derived from most plant that belong to the lemon family, and this makes it quite obvious where Geranial expresses its prominent lemon fragrance.

Due to this citrus effect, it is used in perfumery. Therapeutically geranial has a strong fragrance and is highly capable in keeping away insects, and also exhibits sedative and antimicrobial qualities.

Uses of Geranial:

Geranial in citral is seen to have a sensitivity effect on use, and as per the International Fragrance association, it has been advised that citral be used with desensitizing agents.

On the grounds of therapeutic usage, citral is seen to be effective in regards to genotoxicity and as a carcinogenic, though test claim that they have dose dependent effect on the kidneys. Geranial can also be used to treat infections in relation to the urinary tract and also in the treatment of kidney stone.

Effect of Geranial in Chemotherapy:

A study was conducted to understand the effect of ginger on chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. The chemical constituents of ginger include neral, borneol, b-fellandren, sogaoles, gingeroles, geranial, sineol, bisabolen, oleoresin, zingiberen, diterpenes, lypids, protein, starch and vitamins.

During the study the participants were divided into 2 groups, one received the anti-emetic, and the other was given ginger. The results proved that the group receiving the anti-emetic was only 75% effective when compared to the group receiving only ginger which proved to have completely absence of nausea and vomiting.

Effect of Geranial attributes in Lemon Grass:

To understand the therapeutic qualities of lemon grass a study was carried out. The result proved that lemon grass with the constituents of lemon grass, Citral α, Nerol Geraniol, Citral β, Terpinolene, Citronellal, Myrecene, Geranyl acetate, and Terpinol Methylheptenone showed several therapeutic activities.

Lemon grass had proved hypoglycemic, antimutagenicity, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antioxidants, neurobehaviorial, anti-amoebic, antidiarrheal, antifungal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties.

Prophylactic & Antinociceptive effects of Geranial:

A study was carried out to understand the effects of citral when administered orally to treat conditions of inflammation, acute and chronic nociception, and gastric ulcers caused by the usage of NSAIDS.

The result suggested that citral repressed the pain responses caused by inflammation and the neurogenic effects caused as an effect of intra-plantar injection of formalin; it also displayed therapeutic anti-nociceptive and prophylactic effects towards mechanical hyperalgesia seen in plantar incision surgery.

Citral was also seen displaying gastro-protective effects towards ulcers caused by NSAIDs. All these effects prove the positive response of citral towards the treatment of pain.

Reference Links:

  1. Citral by Wikipedia
  2. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass), published in the Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research
  3. Citral: A monoterpene with prophylactic and therapeutic antinociceptive effects in experimental models of acute and chronic pain, published in European Journal of Pharmacology