Cassia Oil



Cassia-banner“Cassia does everything Cinnamon does, but better!” say many Doctors. Cassia owns the glory of being born in the heart of China and has been in use for more than 4,000 years for culinary and medicinal purposes. This ancient herb has been trusted to enhance energy, life force, vitality and blood circulation.

Ayurveda prescribes Cassia for the treatment of menstrual problems, nausea, respiratory infections, gastro-intestinal problems, depression, loss of libido, rheumatism, diabetes and indigestion. Cassia is botanically called as Cinnamomum cassia and is a member of the Lauraceae plant family.

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Historical uses and importance of Cassia oil:

Cinnamomum cassia, also known as Chinese cinnamon or Chinese cassia finds its origin in South China. This tree serves several purposes and is hence widely cultivated in India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. With its celebrated use in the Traditional Chinese Medicine, Cassia is regarded as one among the 50 fundamental herbs of China.

Cassia finds its importance in the United States too, and is marketed under the name of “Cinnamon” for culinary purposes. The Indians take a liking to the buds on the tree as well and also use it in their food; this is an ancient ingredient for soul food used by the Romans as well.

This tree grows to a height of 10–15 m, which has a grayish bark with leaves that are hard and elongated and a warping of 10-15 cms in length with a pretty red color when young.

The bark of the tree finds its uses in the kitchen, while the leaves and the twigs of this tree are sometimes used in the production of Cassia oil. The oil extracted from the Cassia tree, finds immense importance in the field of Complementary and Alternative medicine including Ayurveda.

It is useful as a medicine, for beauty care, for cooking, as a health tonic and also as a stimulant. Cassia oil is brownish to yellowish in color, and the refined oil is colorless with a pale yellow tint when held up to the sunlight.

The aromatic bark of Cassia has been in use as a medicinal spice in various traditions across the world.  In traditional Chinese medicine, Cassia cinnamon has been used for treating diarrhea, cold, nausea, painful menstruation and flatulence.

It was also used to boost immunity, treat fever, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney infections, candida, nail fungus, atherosclerosis, cataract and even cancer, with its natural antioxidant properties.

Chemical constituents or Gas Chromatography Report (GC) of Cassia oil:

According to the Gas chromatography report, Cassia oil constitutes of 12 chemical components that contribute to its fragrance, therapeutic attributes, consistency and quality of this super aromatic oil. Of which, (E)-Cinnamaldehyde contributes to the highest proportion of Cassia oil constituents with about 81.3% of its total composition.

Just click on:

(E)-Cinnamaldehyde

o-Methoxy-Cinnamaldehyde

Cinnamyl acetate

I believe that this must surely help you in learning about the major chemical constituents of Cassia oil.

The table crafted below clearly depicts the unique nature and contributions of these biochemical constituents to the healing brilliance of Cassia essential oil.

cassia-oil

Therapeutic properties of Cassia essential oil:

The remedial properties of Cassia oil are fungicidal, antimutagen, stimulant, anticoagulant, antiviral, antibacterial, circulatory, anti-diarrhea, anti-arthritic, antioxidant, carminative, anti-galactogogue, anti-rheumatic, emmenagogue, anti-depressant, febrifuge, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-emetic.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Cassia essential oil:

Ayurveda is a righteous remedial practice that indicates that everything on earth should follow a disciplined order of living for leading a healthy and progressive life.

Every human being is a part of nature according to Ayurveda and one’s illness and wellness depends upon an individual’s balance with nature. Ayurvedic healing trusts and depends upon Mother Nature and its natural remedies for treating humanity.

This 5,000 year oldest healing methodology is the pioneer for all other medicinal practices including Homeopathy, Siddha, Unani, Chiropractic, Acupressure, Allopathy, the Traditional Chinese Medicine and much more. The first Ayurvedic record refers to Atharvaveda, one of the 4 sacred books of the Indian mythology with 114 verses talking about numerous diseases and the corresponding traditional remedies of Ayurveda.

This was further enhanced by the 3 most important Ayurvedic encyclopedias namely Charaka Samhita (Charaka – the father of medicine), Sushruta Samhita (Sushruta – the father of surgery) and Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita. These books have talked on all the fundamental principles of Ayurveda, various kinds of illnesses and their comprehensive medicinal practices. This includes Ayurvedic remedies for almost all kinds of diseases including the chronic cancer.

According to Ayurveda, health is a combination of physical, mental and spiritual wellness and Charaka Samhita quotes this as, “The three – body, psyche, and soul – act as a tripod. The world stands upon them, and within them, the world abides.”

The distinctiveness of Ayurveda lies in its holistic approach that treats the root cause of an illness instead of its symptoms. This paves way for treating the sickness as well as preventing it in future.

Instead of prescribing the same medicines for everyone, Ayurveda recommends unique remedies for every individual according to their unique individual constitution, even if it is for the same illness. This is because Ayurveda identifies every individual as a distinctive part of nature and considers that their illnesses should also be treated with accordance to it.

The unique individual constitution or prakriti is an arrangement of three biological energies called as doshas, namely vata, pitta and kapha. These doshas are a combination of the five elements of nature including fire, earth, space, air and water.

Vata (air and space) controls the functions of the nervous system, circulatory system and the respiratory system. Pitta (fire and water) governs the metabolic functions and body temperature. Kapha (earth and water) is in charge for the movement of fluids in the system and the functions of the reproductive system.

Every person has a dominance of any one these doshas and it determines the physical appearance, personality, behavioral patterns and mental makeup. Absolute balance between these doshic elements symbolizes healthiness and disparities of these biological factors lead to diseases.

Ayurveda prescribes natural remedies like plant essential oils, herbs, meditation, yoga, simple physical exercises, Pranayama, Ayurvedic routine, prayers and certain Ayurvedic techniques like Panchakarma or the detox therapy, Abhyanga or the skill of Ayurvedic massaging using Ayurvedic oils and much more.

With its warming and stimulating properties, Cassia essential oil has been used in Ayurvedic healing for increasing pitta dosha and decreasing kapha and vata dosha.

Let’s take a look at the Ayurvedic health benefits of Cassia oil and its use in the treatment of various health conditions:

cassia-broucher-info1. Treats psychological problems:

Cassia oil has been used in the treatment of depression. This is mainly attributed to the presence of its constituent known as Cinnamaldehyde, which helps in uplifting the mood, inducing positive thoughts and combating depression. It helps in relieving one from negative feelings.

Ayurveda recommends Cassia oil especially during meditation, yoga and Pranayama for supporting the perfect harmony of the mind, body and the soul. Adding 2 drops of this oil in vaporizer, burner or diffuser particularly during prayers, meditation, Pranayama or the art of balanced breathing and yoga practices can help in augmenting mental clarity, boost self-confidence, enhance memory skills and to face the challenges of life with original sense of improved independence.

A 2011 study proved that an isolated substance (CEppt) in the cinnamon plant that inhibits development of Alzheimer’s disease in mice. CEppt, an extract of the cinnamon bark, was used to resolve the mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease.

A 2013 study by Dr. Mercola on ‘Vitamins offer hope for Alzheimer’s’ brings out the results of a study published in the ‘Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease’, which states “Cinnamaldehyde and epicatechin, two compounds found in cinnamon, have an inhibitory effect on the aggregation of a particular protein called tau. Tau plays a large role in the structure and function of neurons. Both compounds were found to protect tau from oxidative damage that can lead to dysfunction.”

It is also said that Alzheimer’s disease is a form of brain diabetes and is also explored that there is a connection between Type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease.

This is because “Insulin and insulin receptors in your brain are crucial for learning and memory, and it’s known that these components are lower in people with Alzheimer’s disease”, says Donald Graves, professor in UCSB’s Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology. Cassia cinnamon proves effective in treating Alzheimer’s disease mainly with its potent to control blood glucose level in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

2. Checks diabetes:

Diabetes is one among the most common health condition that about 60% of the earth’s population battles everyday and it is often regarded as a bane to humanity.

Treatment of diabetes through Allopathic medicine has not gone a very long way. Studies show that Cassia oil can be used in the treatment of diabetes especially in type2 diabetes where patients suffer with malfunctioning of insulin in the body.

Cinnamon oil helps lower the level of blood glucose in people with type 2 diabetes; this is made possible through the abundant presence of a Polyphenol compound in Cinnamon that is soluble in water. A 2003 study published in the Diabetes Care journal states that Cassia Cinnamon helped in reducing blood glucose levels, a blood lipid known as triglycerides and bad cholesterol levels (LDL).

Relax your system by adding 2 drops of Cassia oil to warm bathing water in the morning and you can also add 1 drop of this oil to your handkerchief and stay refreshed throughout the day.

In addition to that you can invigorate yourself by an Ayurvedic massage in the weekend with 5 drops of Cassia oil blended with 5 drops of Nutmeg oil, 5 drops of Fennel oil and 10 ml of coconut oil, followed by a warm bath can aid in controlling your blood glucose levels and bad cholesterol levels by penetrating through the skin and passing commands to the bloodstream.

3. Boosts circulation and alleviates rheumatic problems:

Rheumatism is an auto-immune disorder that occurs mainly due to the buildup of toxins or ama in the body caused due to the inequality of digestive fire in the body.

Ayurveda states that ama or the toxic substances in the body has the hazardous power to obstruct the functions of the vital organs in the system. These substances reach the kapha subjugated parts of the body including joints, chest, stomach, fingers, brain and certain other parts.

The symptoms being improper blood circulation, swelling of joints, inflammation, loss of energy, fatigue, inflammation, insomnia, burning and itchy eyes, indigestion, redness, morning stiffness and much more.

Being a circulatory, anti-rheumatic, analgesic oil and controller of excess kapha dosha proves Cassia as an excellent natural remedy for treating rheumatism, arthritis and its associated symptoms.

Massaging the affected parts with 2 drops of Cassia oil mixed with 2 drops of Cardamom oil, 2 drops of Nutmeg oil and 3 ml of sesame oil can help in enhancing blood circulation, augmenting warmth feelings to the joints, alleviating pain, reducing inflammation, promoting frequent urination through which toxins are eliminated and relieving from other related symptoms as well.

Along with this, yoga and Pranayama can help in relieving rheumatism and arthritis quicker than you think. A research by the scientists of the Baltimore John Hopkins University published in the Arthritis Foundation website states that “yoga has absolutely been helpful for treating people with rheumatoid arthritis.”

4. Relieves digestive and respiratory disorders:

The carminative and stomachic properties of Cassia oil help in treating gastro-intestinal problems and other digestive problems including gas, indigestion, diarrhea, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, and infections in the stomach and intestines. For treating digestive problems, you can massage your abdomen with 2 drops of Cassia oil mixed with 2 drops of Nutmeg oil along with 2 ml of avocado oil.

Respiratory infections like cold, cough, influenza and congestion occur due to vitiated kapha dosha causing excess fluid deposits leading to accumulation of phlegm, mucus and other microbes in the nasal, respiratory and bronchial passages.

Cassia essential oil has anti-microbial, anti-viral and expectorant properties along with its potent to regularize the functions of kapha dosha. Adding 2 drops of Cassia oil in steam inhalation along with a gentle massaging of your throat, chest and back with 1 drop of this oil mixed with your vaporizing ointment can grant quicker relief from all kinds of respiratory problems. You can also practice Pranayama (Ayurvedic breathing exercises) for relieving from chronic respiratory problems like asthma, bronchitis etc.

5. Benefits to the female reproductive system:

Cassia oil is a proven natural medicine for treating menstrual pain, spasms, irregular periods, and blocked menstruation. This oil has emmenagogue properties that induce menses and is a boon to women suffering from blocked or irregular menstruation. The analgesic or pain-relieving properties of Cassia oil help in reducing menstrual pain or dysmennorhea.

Massaging your lower abdomen and thighs with 2 drops of Cassia oil mixed with 1 ml of sesame oil can help in alleviating painful menstruation, delayed periods and menstrual spasms. Adding 2 drops of this oil in warm bathing water can help in reducing anxiety, fatigue, nausea, restlessness and loss of energy associated with menstruation.

Cassia and its oil have been used since the ancient Chinese tradition for preventing childbirth and for controlling milk in breastfeeding mothers with its anti-galactogogue properties.

6. Benefits to hair and skin:

Cassia oil finds its uses in cosmetic and hair care products as well. When used with Chamomile tea, Cassia oil can act as a hair dye, and when mixed with lemon juice in right proportions it gives a good strawberry blonde hue for your hair. Shampoos and conditioners that contain Cassia oil can help in the nourishment of your hair from within.

Cassia obovata when made into a mixture with hot water can be used as a hair mask. Adding 2 drops of Cassia oil to 10 ml of your mild shampoo can help in fostering hair growth, treating damaged hair, strengthening hair follicles and aid in retaining the natural moisture in the scalp.

When it comes to skin care, powdered Cassia and its essential oil are used since the primeval times for treating a wide range of skin problems including acne. This oil works well as an anti-viral and anti-fungal agent and highly helps in treating fungal and viral infections of the skin.

Mixing 2 drops of Cassia oil with 1 drop of Orange oil and 1.5 ml of olive oil and applying it gently on the affected parts can assist in treating pimples, blackheads, ringworm, athlete’s foot, itching, wounds and other skin infections. Massaging your facial skin with this blend can also help in eliminating dead skin cells and controlling excessive secretion of oil causing acne.

Other Uses:

Cassia also finds its use as anti-emetic oil by preventing nauseating sensations and also relieves one from vomiting. You can wear 1 drop of Cassia oil on your wrist or add it to your handkerchief or a tissue and inhale the medicated aroma to help you prevent from vomiting and enhance your appetite, especially during travelling. Cassia oil seems to speed up the functioning of the kidneys and is also known for affecting the libido due to its aphrodisiac qualities.

In food, Cassia oil is used for its wonderful aroma and its sweet flavor that gives the dish an additional taste. The delicate scent of Cassia essential oil plays a major role in reducing drowsiness, irritability, pain, frequency of headaches, and more. So adding 1 to 2 drops of this oil to your diffuser or air freshener and inhaling the light scent of this oil in your room can gift you an amusing atmosphere. Cassia oil also helps in relaxing tight muscles and spasms.

Disclaimer:

This article is completely for the purpose of information and education.  It is not meant to cure, diagnose or put a stop to any medical condition or substitute any prescription medicines or expert medical advice. We are not medical professionals and this information is published only with the concern of sharing the conventional principles and therapeutic uses of Ayurveda, the oldest of all healing sciences in the universe.

Do not take essential oils internally and always keep in mind that you dilute essential oils before using it for topical application. This is because organic and pure essential oils are greatly concentrated liquids and may cause allergic reactions if used on the skin directly. Make certain that you consult your Ayurvedic expert/healthcare practitioner prior to choosing the right essential oil for your unique individual constitution and medical condition. Avoid Cassia oil if you are pregnant or nursing your baby.

The MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) of Cassia oil is readily available for your enhanced safety and better usage.

Gas Chromatography Report (GC analysis) of Cassia oil.

Cassia Essential Oil – Possible Skin Issues:

cassia-logoGreener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 – Possible Skin Issues:

See => http://www.essentialdepot.com/GreenerLifeDiamond.html

The adverse skin reactions of Cassia or the Chinese Cinnamon oil are dermal irritation, mild to severe skin sensitization, irritation of the mucous membrane and dermatitis. Cassia oil is said to exhibit no phototoxic effects but is emmenagogue in nature and might cause contraction of the uterine muscles, which is hazardous to the wellness of the fetus and the pregnant women.

The key chemical constituents that are responsible for the possible skin and other undesirable health issues of Cassia oil are Cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, cinnamic acid and cinnamyl alcohol. These components have been studied for causing acute and subchronic toxicity.

Studies state that Cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid and cinnamyl alcohol may cause allergic reactions, irritation, sensitization and dermatitis when the skin is in contact with products like liniments, mouthwashes, toothpastes and creams.

It may provoke debility, itching, irritation, insomnia, and depression in some people. This mainly occurs when the use of Cinnamaldehyde exceeds the maximum safe level of usage. The highest recommended level by the International Fragrance Association (IFRA) for Cinnamaldehyde is 0.05% for most of the products.

When used in vapor therapy and topical application beyond the recommended usage level, Cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, cinnamic acid and cinnamyl alcohol are said to contribute to the irritation of mucous membrane and are accounted for hepatotoxicity (toxic, irritant and might cause damage to the liver), mutagenic (alteration in the structure of DNA), reproductive toxicity (research supporting significant fall in the number of nuclei and changes in the allotment of embryos in pregnant mice) and restrain platelet aggregation, a vital part of the blotting clotting process.

Undiluted or concentrated Cassia oil have been proved to cause severe irritation in rabbits in certain studies and few other studies involving consecutive patients with dermatitis, few people were sensitive to 2% Cassia oil on patch testing.

Always ensure to dilute Cassia oil in appropriate carrier oils before topical use and never ingest essential oil as they may be toxic to the system.

Reference Links Substantiating Possible Skin Issues of Cassia Oil:

  1. Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals By Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young
  2. Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics by Ikhlas A. Khan and Ehab A. Abourashed.
  3. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid when used as fragrance ingredients by The RIFM expert panel, published in the Food and Chemical Toxicology
  4. Cassia bark oil: The Chinese Cinnamon oil by Mercola.com
  5. Fragrance material review on cinnamyl acetate by S.P. Bhatia, G.A. Wellington, J. Cocchiara, J. Lalko, C.S. Letizia, A.M. Api, Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc., Manheimer Fragrances, Teterboro NJ, USA, published in Food and Chemical Toxicology Review and Science Direct

Thought for the day:

The art of healing comes from nature, not from the physician. Therefore the physician must start from nature, with an open mind.  -Paracelsus

Suggested Reading:

  1. Cinnamon and Cassia: The Genus Cinnamomum (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles) from CRC Press
  2. Ayurveda: Life, Health, and Longevity by Robert E. Svoboda B.A.M.S.
  3. The Complete Guide to Natural Cures: Effective Holistic Treatments for Everything from Allergies to Wrinkles (Lynn Sonberg Books) by Debora Yost
  4. The Encyclopedia of Aphrodisiacs: Psychoactive Substances for Use in Sexual Practices by Christian Rätsch, Claudia Müller-Ebeling
  5. Herbal Medicine From the Heart of the Earth by Sharol Marie Tilgner

Reference Links:

  1. Cinnamomum cassia by Wikipedia
  2. Vitamins offer hope for Alzheimer’s by Dr. Mercola
  3. Can Cinnamon help you control your diabetes by Amy Campbell published in Diabetes Self-Management.com
  4. Antimicrobial activities of cinnamon oil and Cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia Blume by Ooi LS, Li Y, Kam SL, Wang H, Wong EY, Ooi VE published in PubMed

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Chamomile Oil German



Chamomile-oil-german-bannerLike a Chamomile bed, the more it is trodden, the more it will spread’, says Shakespeare. With its power to enhance the life force in the body, German Chamomile also known as Blue Chamomile alleviates all kinds of physical and emotional blues. Botanically known as Matricaria Chamomilla, the gentle and grassy aroma of this oil implants calmness in the mind and grants solace to the heart.

Held high across the world for its strongest anti-inflammatory compounds instilling a gentle effect on pain and inflammation, German Chamomile is remembered as one among the best and safest essential oil for people of all ages including children.

Called as Karpurapuspa in Sanskrit and Baboona or Babuna in Hindi, German Chamomile and its essential oil have been used in Ayurveda, the oldest healing methodology of the world as a remedy for itchy skin, dermatitis, menopausal problems, tension, eczema, migraine pain, burns, skin irritation, dysmennorhea, liver congestion, arthritis, PMS, skin inflammation, amenorrhea, anemia, toothache, colic, inflammatory bowel disorders and formation of leukocytes.

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Historical uses and importance of German Chamomile oil:

Chamomile is regarded as one of the oldest herbs used in the history for medicinal purposes. The German variety is indigenous to Nepal and is found all over the world including the temperate zones of Australia, Asia, Europe (Hungary and France) and North America.

This herb is a member of the sunflower or daisy family Asteraceae and is called by other names such as Hungary Chamomile, Blue Chamomile, Matricaria, Scented Mayweed or Wild Chamomile.

The name ‘Matricaria’ has its origin from the Latin name ‘Mater’ meaning ‘Mother’ and is extremely helpful in treating numerous womanly problems. It is regarded as one of the most distinguished herbal teas of the world and nearly one million cups of Chamomile tea are consumed every day.

The most interesting historical reference of this herb dates back to 78 A.D when Europe’s first medical reference book De Materia Medica was written by Dioscorides.

German Chamomile has its name listed in the potent herbs for treating many health conditions and is also listed as one of the most sacred herbs in Lacnunga, the antique manuscript. It is used in herbal medicine as a serene sleep aid, for treating sore stomach, bacterial infections, inflammation, irritable bowel syndrome and as a mild laxative.

German Chamomile has been used as a natural aid for assisting problems related to women especially with its emmenagogue properties that help in relieving from painful menses, delayed menstruation, menopausal problems and as a uterine tonic.

The herbal infusion, decoction or tea prepared from the flowers of German Chamomile was taken in folklore medicine for assisting in cases of motion sickness, vomiting, indigestion, flatulence and ulcerative colitis.

It has been used for numerous centuries in the traditional medicine for treating dermatitis, skin inflammation and gastrointestinal tract symptoms. Dried German Chamomile flowers were used in compress or infusion for alleviating pain and inflammation associated with rheumatism, arthritis and other inflamed conditions.

German Chamomile was prescribed by the Greek physicians for treating female disorders, fever, restlessness, neuralgia, stress and insomnia. It was used as a tenderizing agent for preserving meat in the ancient period.

Chemical constituents and therapeutic properties of German Chamomile oil:

The major chemical components of German Chamomile oil are ‘terpenoids α-bisabolol and its oxide azulenes including chamazulene and acetylene derivatives’ (bisabolol oxide A, bisabolene oxide A, a-bisabolol and bisabolol oxide B) along with farnesol, thujanol, bisabolol, coumarin and farnasene.

The remedial properties of this oil are anti-inflammatory, emmenagogue, immuno-stimulant, anti-anemic, stomachic, anti-allergenic, antiphlogistic, analgesic, bactericidal, anti-spasmodic, vasoconstrictor, antibiotic, carminative, digestive, cicatrisant, vulnerary, cholagogue, hepatic, vermifuge, and sedative.

Ayurvedic health benefits of German Chamomile essential oil:

Ayurveda is the ancient wisdom of healing and it fervently imparts that every human being should follow a disciplined life and must have ample knowledge about his/her health. It is a Vedic science rewarded by the Saints, Sages and Ancient Gods of Hinduism to humanity. Ayurveda simply means knowledge of life (Ayur – Life and Veda – knowledge).

The most predominant factor behind Ayurveda’s existence as a mother of all healing sciences including the Traditional Chinese Medicine, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy, Acupressure, Naturopathy, Aromatherapy and Chiropractic.

The distinctiveness of Ayurveda is its adherence to Mother Nature, which insists to maintain balance with nature for a healthy and harmonious life. Ayurvedic principles state that living in harmony with nature is the absolute way to heartiness, prevention of illnesses, healthy aging and longevity.

As per the Ayurvedic philosophy, the whole thing on earth is a grouping of the five vital elements of nature namely water, fire, earth, space and air, where water stands for the blood in the body, fire represents the body temperature and metabolic functions, air assists in breathing, earth symbolizes muscles and bones, space or ether signifies the soul.

Every individual is considered as a unique part of nature with a unique individual constitution (the physical, psychological and spiritual make up of a person) just like our fingerprints.

This constitution is an arrangement of three biological energies known as doshas. They are vata, pitta and kapha dosha. Vata is a combination of air and space and is responsible for nervous functions and governs the working of the autonomous and central nervous system.

Kapha is a grouping of water and earth and is in charge for virility, stability, binding power and vigor of the body. Pitta dosha is a blend of fire and water and is accountable for metabolic functions, tissue building, endocrine functions and body temperature.

Every one of us has a predominance of any one of these doshas and this predominant dosha decides our unique persona, temperament and behavioral patterns. Absolute balance between these doshas is a sign of good health and imbalances of these dynamic energies due to food, weather conditions and other lifestyle changes cause illnesses.

Ayurvedic treatments vary from individual to individual even if it is for the same illness because this traditional system observes the individual constitution, medical history of the patient and the root cause of an illness before prescribing the appropriate medicines.

The most established Ayurvedic medications are plant essential oils, herbs, yoga, Abhyanga or Ayurvedic massaging, Ayurvedic routine, simple physical exercises, prayer and meditation based on upon the distinctive individual constitution for correcting the imbalance of doshas.

German Chamomile oil has the potent to pacify aggravated pitta and kapha doshas and balance vata dosha. These amazing healing attributes make German Chamomile oil as an excellent Ayurvedic remedy for treating inflammation, skin irritation, lack of immune power, anemia, amenorrhea, menopause, anger, headache and other female reproductive problems.

Let’s have a look at the key Ayurvedic health benefits of German Chamomile essential oil:

Chamomile-germanbroucher1. Regulates all kinds of menstrual and menopausal mayhems:

German Chamomile essential oil has numerous beneficial effects on the reproductive tissue known as shukra dhatu in Ayurveda. Ancient Ayurvedic texts also say that this herb has therapeutic properties for regulating menstrual activities and is called as artavashamana.

Massaging your lower abdomen and thighs with 2 drops of German Chamomile oil and 2 drops of Lavender oil along with 2 ml of sesame oil can be of great help in relieving menstrual pain or dysmennorhea, premenstrual fatigue and headache, promote menstruation in case of blocked or delayed menses and alleviate all kinds of menstrual discomforts. This massage also serves as a cooling natural remedy to treat the hot flashes, excessive discharge and mood fluctuations during menopause.

German Chamomile tea was prescribed in Ayurveda to lessen pain during childbirth and for easing nausea during pregnancy. Certain studies have proven that Chamomile douche may possibly get better the symptoms of vaginitis or vaginal inflammation in women.

Mostly women of all ages are affected by vaginal inflammation and vaginitis is coupled with pain during urination, itching and vaginal discharge. German Chamomile oil is also effective in treating Atrophic vaginitis also, which occurs due to low estrogen levels in postmenopausal and menopausal women.

2. Relieves skin irritation and supports other skin conditions:

The book on ‘Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects by Philip D. Shenefelt’ states “German chamomile (Matricaria recutita), a member of the daisy family, has been used for centuries, both internally and externally, for treating many conditions, especially gastrointestinal tract symptoms, oral or skin inflammation, as well as dermatitis.”

He also says “The anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, and antimicrobial effects of German chamomile oil are attributed to an essential blue oil that contains sesquiterpene alcohol, α-bisabolol, chamazulene, and flavonoids.”

The relaxing, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and wound healing properties of this oil assists in relieving skin problems rapidly in case of varicose ulcers, wounds, burns, stings, allergies, cystitis, vaginitis, neuralgia and skin ulcers.

Many studies have proved that German Chamomile essential oil has witnessed slight superiority over ” 0.5% hydrocortisone cream in atopic eczema (Patzelt-Wenczler et al 1985), more beneficial than 1% hydrocortisone ointment in the management and healing of peristomal skin lesions in colostomy patients.”

Adding 2 drops of German Chamomile oil along with 2 drops of Rose Geranium oil to bathing water can be helpful in killing germs, bacteria and fungi responsible for skin infections like athlete’s foot, candida, acne, cystitis, Urticaria and dandruff.

This bath also helps in combating the harmful bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus that causes wounds and other skin conditions to turn septic. It also helps in lessening one’s sensitivity to allergens like dust and pollen and aid in treating hay fever, sinusitis, chronic catarrh and eczema.

Massaging the affected areas with 3 drops of German Chamomile oil blended with 2 drops of Sandalwood oil and 3 ml of jojoba oil can help in healing wounds, eczema, psoriasis, varicose ulcers and burns. 2 drops of German Chamomile oil added to a cup of warm water can be used as a gargle for treating gingivitis, plaque, sore throat, mouth ulcer and bad breath.

3. Augments immunity and boosts the vital life force:

German Chamomile oil controls the flow of Life Force, also known as Qi or Chi with its cooling and tranquilizing effect on the system. With its immune enhancing power, this oil assists in preventing infectious diseases by strengthening the disease resistance power of the system.

Since the traditional times, this oil acts as a promising natural remedy for treating almost all kinds of diseases. According to Ayurveda, German Chamomile oil has kasasvasahara or therapeutic properties for alleviating respiratory problems like cough, cold, breathing difficulties, tonsillitis, flu, broncho-constriction in asthma and sinusitis. This oil is also said to have fever lessening properties known as jwaraghna with its power to reduce excess of pitta energy responsible for body temperature.

German Chamomile oil also has other healing properties helpful in relieving gout, eye inflammation, arthritis, conjunctivitis, rheumatism, carpal tunnel syndrome, blepharitis, meibomian cysts, fibromyalgia, lumbago, hepatitis, gallbladder infections, anemia, teething pain, abscesses, viral colitis, Alzheimer’s disease, diaper rashes, nervous tension and certain other health conditions.

4. Controls anger and promotes peaceful sleep:

The essential oil of German Chamomile helps in calming and relaxing the mind and body with its naturally cooling effects. It regulates anger, rage, irritation and aversion caused due to the excess heat in our mechanism. The cooling properties of German Chamomile oil reduce pitta dosha especially sadhaka pitta (pitta in the mind and heart).

Excess of which is responsible for the generation of heat energy in the body. By this way, it pacifies the mind, cools the body and instills gentle and positive feelings from within.

Gently massaging your system with 5 drops of German Chamomile oil blended with 5 drops of Lavender oil and 5 drops of Tea tree oil with 10 ml of coconut oil is an excellent way to keep you cool throughout the day. Adding 1 drop of German Chamomile oil in your handkerchief or a tissue paper and carrying it with you all through the day can help in releasing negative emotions soothingly and induce clarity, improve self-esteem and self-realization.

Adding 2 drops of German Chamomile oil and 2 drops of Rose oil in warm bathing water before going to bed can be of great help in relaxing the tensed nerves, aching muscles and in promoting peaceful sleep. You can also add 2 drops of German Chamomile oil in your diffuser or vaporizer in the bedroom for relieving anxiety and mental agonies.

German Chamomile oil has also been proven in several studies as an efficacious natural remedy for treating GAD or generalized anxiety disorder. Chamomile is widely accepted as gentle tranquilizer and sleep-inducer.

A 2010 study published in PubMed quotes “inhalation of the vapor of chamomile oil reduced a stress-induced increase in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels.” Inhaling the aroma of this oil influences sedative effect in the body by binding the GABA and BDZ receptors in the brain.

Inhaling the herbaceous, intensely sweet and fruity aroma of German Chamomile oil especially during Pranayama (balanced breathing exercise), meditation and prayer enhances our spiritual energy to the next level and augments our soul’s connectedness with the Divine Power.

5. Alleviates pain and inflammation:

German Chamomile essential oil is often trusted to lessen pain, reduce muscular spasms and alleviate gastrointestinal inflammatory problems and other inflammatory disorders. Certain studies reveal that Chamomile restrains Helicobacter pylori, which causes to stomach ulcers. The anti-inflammatory and antiphlogistic activities of German Chamomile are attributed to its chemical components like matricin, alpha-bisabolol oxides A and B, and alpha-bisabolol.

A research tested on human volunteers with Chamomile essential oil states “Chamomile flavonoids and essential oils penetrate below the skin surface into the deeper skin layers. This is important for their use as topical antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory) agents.”

This oil has excellent diuretic properties, known as mutrala in Ayurveda and helps in relieving urinary infections, inflammation in the bladder and other kidney infections along with eliminating the toxic deposits in the system.

Massage the painful or inflamed parts with 3 drops of German Chamomile oil blended with 3 drops of Yarrow oil also known as Yara Yara oil with 5 ml of coconut oil to alleviate pain, mitigate spasms, reduce inflammation, promote blood circulation and eliminate toxic substances in the system and lessen water retention, leading to obesity, rheumatism, arthritis etc.

6. Treats diarrhea and other gastrointestinal problems:

Both German Chamomile and Roman Chamomile have been used as a traditional remedy for treating colic, especially in children, diarrhea, stomach cramps, gas, intestinal spasms, irritable bowel syndrome, indigestion, stomach ulcers and gastrointestinal disorders. German Chamomile oil is known as a digestive relaxant that helps in soothing the muscles, relaxing the stomach and leaves a gentle effect on the intestines, to help in pacifying stomach ulcers, flatulence, anorexia, diarrhea, bloating, intestinal gas and morning sickness.

Massaging your abdomen gently with 2 drops of German Chamomile oil and 2 drops of Peppermint oil along with 2 ml of almond oil can help in relaxing muscular contractions in the stomach and intestines along with reducing excess of digestive fire or pitta energy causing diarrhea and painful ulcers.

The gentle and cooling effect of German Chamomile oil along with the cool minty effect of Peppermint oil gradually reduces pain in the stomach and intestines and grants peaceful sleep especially in children who suffer from colic.

Disclaimer:

This information is only for educational purposes and is expressed wholly in the concern of spreading the cultural wisdom of Ayurveda, the mother of all healing sciences. The remedies listed in this article are not intended to prevent, cure or diagnose any medical condition or as an alternate for any kind of prescription remedies or any medical advice of a healthcare professional.

Internal use of essential oils is strictly not recommended. Ensure that you dilute essential oils in suitable carrier oils before you use it on the skin topically, as high quality, unadulterated and organic essential oils are extremely concentrated substances and may cause allergic reactions if used on the skin directly.

Speak with your Ayurvedic professional/healthcare expert before choosing the appropriate essential oils for your unique individual constitution and state of health. Avoid using German Chamomile oil if you are pregnant or nursing your baby, because this oil has high emmenagogue properties that may induce menstruation.

Thought for the day:

The best remedy for those who are afraid, lonely or unhappy is to go outside, somewhere where they can be quiet, alone with the heavens, nature and God. Because only then does one feel that all is as it should be.

-Anne Frank

Suggested Reading:

  1. Chamomile: Medicinal, Biochemical, and Agricultural Aspects (Traditional Herbal Medicines for Modern Times) by Moumita Das
  2. Chamomile: Industrial Profiles (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles) from CRC Press
  3. Surviving When Modern Medicine Fails: A definitive guide to essential oils that could save your life during a crisis by Dr. Scott A. Johnson
  4. The Healing Intelligence of Essential Oils: The Science of Advanced Aromatherapy by Kurt Schnaubelt Ph.D.
  5. Ayurveda & Aromatherapy: The Earth Essential Guide to Ancient Wisdom and Modern Healing by Dr. Light Miller, Dr. Bryan Miller

Reference Links:

  1. Matricaria chamomilla by Wikipedia
  2. German Chamomile by The University of Maryland Medical Center
  3. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future by Janmejai K Srivastava, Eswar Shankar,and Sanjay Gupta, Department of Urology & Nutrition, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio published in PubMed
  4. Chamomilla recutita – German Chamomile: Western and Ayurvedic Perspectives from Positive Health Online
  5. Herbal Treatment for Dermatologic Disorders Philip D. Shenefelt published in PubMed

Chamomile Oil Roman



roman-chamomile-bnner‘Oil for inner peace’ is the absolute way of honoring Roman Chamomile oil for its gratifying and engaging apple aroma that instantly instills a feeling of love and encouragement. Obtained from the flowers of the Anthemis nobilis plant by steam distillation method, the word Chamomile is extracted from the Greek words Chamai and Melon, which means ‘ground apple’.

Used in Ayurvedic healing in the treatment of bloating, flatulence, dysmennorhea, insomnia, headache, nervous disorders in children, jaundice, PMS, amenorrhea, sunburn, colic, indigestion, anger, depression and negative feelings.

The book Ayurveda and aromatherapy quotes Roman Chamomile as Gold Chamomile and says, “This is the Chamomile that is preferred for children’s illnesses because of its soothing and calming effect. It can be of special assistance during menopause and PMS, and inhalation works well for tension, stress and irritability.”

Purchase Chamomile Roman Essential Oil – 4oz – CLICK HERE 

Historical uses and importance of Roman Chamomile:

It is a member of the daisy family, Asteraceae and its medicinal uses dates back to the ancient Roman and Egyptian civilization, where Roman Chamomile was used in the treatment of nervous afflictions, anxiety, sleeping difficulties and respiratory problems.

The traditional Egyptians dedicated these aromatic flowers to their native Gods for its healing properties. The Sun God was called as Ra and it was trusted to bring back health and heartiness. Chamomile was offered to Sun to get rid of fevers (especially severe fevers known as Ague during that time) and to moon for its cooling potential.

Universally known as one among the Saxon’s nine sacred herbs, Roman Chamomile is also called by various other names like True Chamomile, Golden Chamomile, English Chamomile and the Noble Chamomile for its pacifying aroma and excellent remedial values.

Roman Chamomile is called as Manzanilla (means ‘Little Apple’) in Spain and it was Pliny the Elder, Roman natural philosopher who first mentioned the similarity of the fragrance of the Chamomile flowers to that of the apple blossoms.

It was prevalently used as a strewing herb in the middle ages for perfuming the surroundings in special celebrations and events. During this time, it was also used in flavoring beer, ale and other beverages for its unique bitter taste.

Chamomile tea is a popular natural drink in the United States for reducing fatigue and inducing calmness to the system. It is a favorite ingredient in cosmetics, shampoos, perfumes, soaps, skin preparations and other toiletries.

It is cultivated throughout England, Spain, Argentina, France, Germany, Hungary, Morocco, Belgium, Italy and the United States, among which the England variety is considered as the best for essential oil production.

Numerous illnesses including insomnia, intestinal spasms, eczema, colic in infants, anxiety, depression, lack of self-confidence, inflammation, headache and skin infections are being treated with Roman Chamomile and its essential oil throughout the world for more than thousands of years.

Therapeutic properties and chemical constituents of Roman Chamomile essential oil:

This oil has anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, anti-depressant, nervine, analgesic, emetic, antipyretic, emmenagogue, carminative, relaxing, antispasmodic, antiseptic, anti-infectious, antibiotic, febrifuge, sedative, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge, antiphlogistic, cicatrisant, hepatic, vulnerary, cholagogue and sudorific.

These healing actions are contributed by its chemical constituents including camphene, b-caryophyllene, myrcene, a-pinene, farnesol, sabinene, b-pinene, bisabolol, y-terpinene, azulene, propyl angelate, butyl angelate, pinocarveol, and 1, 8-cineole.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Roman Chamomile essential oil:

Ayurveda is called as the mother of all healing sciences, mainly because of its traditional wisdom spread to the world and its acumen to reside behind as the greatest resource for other healing systems with its vast ancient medicinal recordings especially in Atharvaveda, one among the 4 prominent Vedas (sacred books) of the Hindu mythology.

The three major Ayurvedic texts like Sushruta Samhita, Charaka Samhita and Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita documented the comprehensive medicinal practices and the fundamentals of Ayurveda.

Sushruta and Charaka are the most renowned Ayurvedic physicians of the ancient period and have expressed their Ayurvedic expertise in treating all kinds of illnesses from acne to plastic surgery and menstrual pain to caesarean delivery.

The most inspiring thing about Ayurvedic healing is its preaching and practices for leading a disciplined life. Ayurvedic philosophy revolves various aspects of healing and the most important ones are the holistic healing method, recommending natural remedies for prevention of illnesses and longevity.

They are the holistic approach that considers health as a three-dimensional array with the wellness of the mind, body and spirit. Charaka Samhita, clearly states this as “The three – body, psyche, and soul – act as a tripod. The world stands upon them, and within them, the world abides.”

It aims at preventing illnesses, leading to aging in the pink and longevity. Ayurveda treats illnesses after analyzing its root cause instead of diagnosing it just with the symptoms. It prescribes natural remedies including essential oils, herbs, yoga, meditation, Ayurvedic routine, prayer and other Ayurvedic methodologies like Abhyanga or Ayurvedic massaging and Panchakarma or the technique for detoxification.

Ayurvedic treatment begins with the primary analysis of the biological energies that are a representation of the five vital elements of nature. These energies are called as doshas, namely vata (air + space), pitta (fire + water), and kapha (earth + water). These three doshas are present in every person in specific proportion to create the individual constitution. Absolute balance between these doshas symbolizes health and disparity leads to illnesses.

Ayurvedic physicians prescribe natural remedies to normalize the imbalance of doshas in accordance to the Prakriti or the fundamental constitution of a person. With its neutral and cooling energy, Roman Chamomile oil is said to reduce the surplus of kapha and pitta doshas and increase vata dosha.

The Ayurvedic health benefits of Roman Chamomile essential oil are:roman-chamomile-broucher-in1. Pacifies and calms irritable babies:

Babies have no reason for crying, especially during the nighttime when the entire family is trying to sleep tight. Many think that pacifying a crying baby is a ‘Mother’s Thing’ and if you are worried about soothing your stubborn baby the next time, then think of keeping Roman Chamomile essential oil in your emergency kit. This oil also aids in calming irritable babies and appease your baby’s spiteful temper crabbiness.

Roman Chamomile oil is considered to be absolutely safe on children, including newborns. Add 2 drops of this oil on bed linens or on the baby’s pillow. You can also add 2 drops of Roman Chamomile oil to a cotton ball and keep it near your shoulders, inside your shirt. This helps greatly when you try to tranquil your crying baby by granting comfort to their nerves and senses and promote peaceful sleep in sometime.

One drop of Roman Chamomile oil mixed with 10 drops of virgin olive oil can be gently massaged on your baby’s tummy to get rid of pain, colic, stomach upset and diarrhea. This can also be rubbed on a baby’s gums for relieving teething pain, inflammation and swelling associated with teething.

2. Combats insomnia and promotes peaceful sleep:

Sleepless nights are the biggest nightmare that lead to a dull day and drowsiness at work. Insomnia or sleeping disorders mainly occur due to anxiety, fatigue, tension, pain, worries, nervous disorders, post-pregnancy problems or post-surgery effects.

A recent study published in the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, states that “Chamomile extract therapy was found to be efficacious for mild-moderate GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder)“. Patients with mild to moderate level of GAD were a part of the study and they received chamomile or placebo. This study concluded stating that the patients who received the Chamomile treatment were traced to have a noteworthy change in the severity of their Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

The calming, soothing, sedative and relaxing effects of this oil assist in sedating the system and stimulating good sleep. Adding 3 drops of Roman Chamomile oil to the diffuser or vaporizer in your bedroom or 2 drops added to a tissue placed near your pillows can help in having a restful state in which you can sleep faster and better as well.

Adding 5 to 6 drops of this oil in warm bathing water before going to bed can also be helpful in tranquilizing the nervous system with its nervine properties and lighten up the system physically and emotionally.

3. Bundle of benefits for the skin:

Roman Chamomile essential oil is an excellent calmative for the skin also. Baumann says “It has amazing anti-inflammatory properties that make it ideal for patients with rosacea.” This oil also works wonders in reducing pimples, blackheads, itches and heat rashes especially during summer. This oil also assists in lessening skin irritation and redness caused due to climatic conditions and allergies.

A report by the University Of Maryland Medical Center on Roman Chamomile states that “Test tube studies have shown that chamomile can kill bacteria, fungus, and viruses. Used on the skin, it may also reduce inflammation from cuts or hemorrhoids.”

It is also said that this oil can help in easing the discomforts of eczema, psoriasis, blisters, diaper rashes, skin ulcers, bruises, sunburns and other skin conditions.

Roman Chamomile oil is a popular ingredient in an extensive range of cosmetics and skin care products for many centuries. This is mainly due to the antiseptic, antibacterial, vulnerary, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cicatrisant properties of this oil.

Mix 3 drops of Roman Chamomile oil with 1.5 ml of Almond oil and gently massage on the affected parts of your skin, followed by a gentle face wash with soap-free cleansing cream.

Then wash it again with a cup of cold water with 1 drop of Roman Chamomile oil diluted in it. This treatment helps in healing wounds, burns, cuts, blisters, wrinkles, blackheads, acne marks, eczema, cracked nipples and other skin problems.

4. Alleviates depression and proffers inner peace:

Roman Chamomile is trusted to be a calming agent especially for alleviating stress and assisting in peaceful sleep. This oil has an impact on the heart chakra and the crown chakra; where the heart chakra is responsible for love for the self, conscious evolution, forgiveness, compassion and love for others as well. The crown chakra is the center of prayer and faith and for building an intimate bond with the Divine power.

The invigorating aroma of Roman Chamomile oil aids in opening the crown chakra and assists in releasing fear and anxiety related to the world. It also helps one realize the heavenly truth of ‘living in the present moment’ and alleviates worries, stress and depression related to loneliness, separation and detachment.

About 2 to 3 drops of Roman Chamomile oil when added to vaporizer, burner or diffuser     assists in bringing self-acceptance, augmenting self-esteem and peace. Inhaling the soothing aroma of this oil along with massaging your body with 5 drops of Roman Chamomile oil blended with 5 drops of Lavender oil and 5 drops of Frankincense oil with 10 ml of virgin olive oil can aid in overcoming fear, agony, agitation, mental confusions, hopelessness, discouragement and frustration.

5. Supports the digestive system:

The essential oil of Roman Chamomile has carminative, stomachic, vermifuge, digestive and cholagogue properties that help in supporting the digestive system and in stimulating the metabolic functions.

Dr. Vikram Chauhan, MD in Ayurveda regards Roman Chamomile as an effective herb for digestive disorders. He says “Roman chamomile has long been used to treat digestive problems, such as sluggish digestion, bloating, belching and flatulence. The bitter sesquiterpene lactones stimulate the digestive juices, and the flavonoids and coumarins have antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory powers.”

Massaging your abdomen with 3 drops of Roman Chamomile oil with 3 drops of Peppermint oil helps in toning up the functions of the stomach, alleviates excess gas from the stomach and intestines by stimulating the secretion of hydrochloric acid, bile and other digestive juices and enzymes that regularize the digestion process.

6. Relieves pain and inflammation:

Roman Chamomile oil has analgesic or pain-relieving qualities that help in relieving pain in the joints, muscular aches, headache, toothache and migraine pain. 2 drops of this oil mixed with 2 drops of Myrrh gel oil and 2 ml of coconut oil massaged on the painful or affected parts can help in promoting blood circulation, relieving tension in the painful nerves and muscles, detoxifying the blood and helps in alleviating toxins and other impurities in the blood. The anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic and antiphlogistic effects of this oil aids in reducing inflammation, redness, edema and swelling in case of arthritis and rheumatism.

Can also be used for:

This oil is also effective in treating dysentery, allergies, menopausal problems, menstrual discomforts, sciatica, restlessness, insect bites, cystitis and sprains.

Disclaimer:

This information is only for the purpose of education and is not meant to cure, diagnose or prevent any illnesses or substitute any professional medical advice or prescribed medication. Ayurveda is a common sense science that treats the individual instead of the illnesses and this article is meant to confer the ancient traditional wisdom of this 5,000 years old healing system, and we are not medical professionals.

Do not use essential oils internally and always make sure that you use it topically in a diluted form, as pure and organic essential oils are highly concentrated substances and may cause allergies if used directly on the skin. It is advisable to do a small patch test on your skin, if you are using any essential oil for the first time. Speak with your healthcare expert/Ayurvedic practitioner before using the suitable essential oils for your health condition and unique individual constitution.

Thought for the day:

Joy in looking and comprehending is nature’s most beautiful gift. 

-Albert Einstein

Suggested Reading:

  1. How to Use Roman Chamomile Essential Oil (Aromatherapy) by Miriam Kinai
  2. Camomile (The Herb Library Series) by Kate Ferry-Swainson, Deni Brown
  3. The Ultimate PCOS Handbook: Lose Weight, Boost Fertility, Clear Skin and Restore Self-Esteem by Colette Harris, Theresa Cheung
  4. Natural BabyCare: Pure and Soothing Recipes and Techniques for Mothers and Babies (Natural Health and Beauty Series) by Colleen K. Dodt
  5. Chamomile: Industrial Profiles (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles) from CRC Press

Reference Links:

  1. Roman Chamomile by the University of Maryland Medical Center
  2. Chamaemelum nobile by Wikipedia
  3. Health Benefits of Camomile Essential Oil by Organic Facts
  4. Roman Chamomile – Effective Herb For Digestion Problems by Dr. Vikram Chauhan
  5. The Calming Power of Chamomile by Medical News Today