Wintergreen Essential Oil


Winter-green-bannerWintergreen essential oil extracted from the leaves of Wintergreen plants, botanically known as Gaultheria Procumbens is native to North America and Canada. Gaultheria fragrantissima wallich is indigenous to India and the Indian Wintergreen essential oil has similar therapeutic properties just as the American Wintergreen essential oil. I love Wintergreen oil for its effectiveness in relieving muscular pains and spasms.

Experts call it as ‘Nature’s Aspirin’ as it is exceptionally potent in treating arthritic and rheumatic pain since ages together. Ayurveda, the ancient natural science of healing calls this herb as Gandapura and was used in many spiritual ceremonies where this sacred plant was trusted to bring harmony between earth and its inhabitants through its healing powers.

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Historical uses of Wintergreen essential oil:

The essential oil of Wintergreen was used for flavoring in the primordial times. The principal constituent of this oil is methyl salicyclate, which is 98% of this oil and other major constituents are gaultherilene, myrcene, limonene and formaldehyde.

The Native Americans used Wintergreen leaves to brew tea for treating rheumatic problems and chewed the leaves to treat respiratory problems, headache, sore throat, fever, tooth decay and to augment lung capacity.

Wintergreen essential oil is used externally as a folk medicine for joint problems, muscular discomforts, inflammation, cramps, rheumatism, arthritis, psoriasis, bruises, eczema, improper blood circulation, cellulite, headache, obesity and certain heart diseases. Wintergreen was used in numerous ritual practices for treating curses, protecting from evils and for its amazing healing benefits.

Chemical constituents or Gas Chromatography Report (GC) of Wintergreen oil:

According to the Gas chromatography report, Wintergreen oil constitutes of 2 chemical components that contribute to its fragrance, therapeutic attributes, consistency and quality of this oil. Of which, Methyl salicylate contributes to the highest proportion of Wintergreen oil with about 99.9% of its total composition.

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I trust that this must certainly help you in getting to know the exclusive information about the prime chemical constituents of Wintergreen oil.

The table crafted below clearly depicts the unique nature and contributions of these bio-chemical constituents to the healing magnificence of Wintergreen essential oil.

wintergreen-gct

Ayurvedic health benefits of Wintergreen essential oil:

Ayurveda is a holistic approach that doesn’t focus on the disease alone but treats the individual as a whole. According to this ancient science, human body is made up of three doshas or energy elements namely vata, pitta and kapha, which are a combination of five vital elements of nature (air, water, fire, earth and ether).

Vata symbolizes air and is responsible for ejections, eliminations and discharges of the body. It regulates metabolism and is the key to functions of the brain and nervous system. Pitta represents fire and is in charge of digestion, body temperature, vision and reasoning skills.

Kapha with its lubricating qualities signifies earth and is completely responsible for the shape and figure of an individual. Reproductive health, circulation, muscular strength and ability to regain good health are vested with a balanced kapha.

Every individual will have a predominance of any of these three doshas where the predominant one determines the characteristic of an individual. Good health is a symbol that your doshas are in balance and imbalance of any of these doshas will end up in illness.

Ayurvedic remedies are purely natural and suggest the use of herbs, essential oils extracted from plants, Abhyanga or Ayurvedic massage, practice of yoga, meditation, taking up an Ayurvedic routine and spirituality.

Wintergreen essential oil is a trusted medication in treating vata imbalances predominantly. In Ayurveda, wintergreen oil is used in treating Vata gout where the autoimmune system gets weakened and affects joints and muscles.

This is mainly due to the natural pain killing attribute of Wintergreen oil and a gentle massage with Wintergreen essential oil is said to soothe and warm up the skin, granting complete relief from pain, stiffness, inflammation and dryness.

Let’s now have a look at the other major Ayurvedic health benefits of Wintergreen essential oil are:

Wintergreen-broucher1. Chronic rheumatism and arthritis:

Rheumatoid arthritis or chronic rheumatism is a long term health disorder and is known as Ama vata in Ayurvedic terms. It affects the joints, causing inflammation, swelling, redness, and sharp pain.

Ayurveda states that the fundamental cause for this illness is the imbalance of the digestive fire and the stagnation of ama or toxic substances of the body mainly due to unhealthy lifestyle and stress.

Wintergreen essential oil has stimulant, anti-arthritic and anti-rheumatic properties that aids in discharging toxins from the body through urine and stimulating proper blood circulation.

Applying few drops of Wintergreen oil with carrier oils like Jojoba oil or sesame oil will help clearing impediments in the blood flow, checks rheumatism and helps in removal of toxins, reduce excess weight, salts and excess water by penetrating deeply into the tissues and muscles through the skin.

2. Pain, inflammation and muscular problems:

Wintergreen essential oil is used as a counterirritant in treating pain, sores, muscular pains, lower back pain, achy joints and inflammation, where counterirritants act by creating an irritable sensation that lessens swelling and pain in the tissues.

The analgesic, relaxant and anodyne properties of this oil cause numbness and warmth when applied on the painful area. It eliminates pain, reduce stress, drive away tension and induce good sleep by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins responsible for causing pain.

This is mainly due to the presence of Methyl salicyclate which is equivalent to the conventional medicine aspirin (the fundamental component of aspirin is salicyclate). These soothing and pain-relieving attributes of Methyl salicyclate in Wintergreen essential oil makes it a vital part in celebrated pain relievers like BENGAY.

3. Respiratory problems and other spasmodic disorders:

The anti-spasmodic properties of Wintergreen oil aids in treating all kinds of spasms in the respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system, circulatory system and muscles.

Adding few drops of Wintergreen essential oil in steam inhalation, warm baths, gentle massaging and few other topical applications on the affected parts will give complete relief from respiratory disorders like asthma, chest congestion, breathing problems and spasmodic coughs.

Nervous afflictions, muscular contractions and certain other health disorders due to spasms can be effectively treated with the oil of Wintergreen.

4. Skin disorders:

Wintergreen essential oil is highly toxic and it acts as a protective shield against bacteria, virus, fungi, microbes and other harmful organisms. This makes it a good antiseptic and protects the skin from being septic in case of microbes’ prone open wounds, cuts and other skin infections.

This oil is very powerful and kills Staphylococcus Aureus bacteria and heals septic problems. Mild application on the skin is effective for treating all types of skin disorders as this oil has the potential to infiltrate into the skin and is easily absorbed by tissues and blood stream for faster relief. Wintergreen essential oil is also effectual in uplifting the skin, augmenting the skin tone and fighting against the symptoms of aging.

5. Digestion and elimination:

To put in simple terms, this oil boosts digestion, promotes quicker absorption of nutrients and stimulates trouble-free excretion, where the toxic substances of the body are eliminated for supporting good health.

The hepatostimulant property of Wintergreen essential oil assists the secretion of digestive enzymes, bile, gastric juices and hormones facilitating proper functioning of the body. This oil stimulates the working of gall bladder, liver, kidneys, endocrinal glands, digestive system, excretory system, circulatory system and the nervous system.

The diuretic attribute of Wintergreen oil aids in eliminating the excess water, salt, fat and uric acid in the body through urine, which makes it a promising natural remedy for treating bladder infections, hypertension, edema, obesity and water logging.

6. Woman’s health:

Being a natural emmenagogue, wintergreen essential oil helps in treating plenty of womanly problems like delayed menstruation, uterine ulcers, dysmennorhea, blocked menses, pain in the pelvic region, hair fall, hemorrhages, fatigue, vomiting and stress related to menstruation.

A soothing massage using 2 to 3 drops of Wintergreen essential oil blended with sesame oil can grant complete relief. Adding few drops of this oil to your bath tub with warm water can calm your nerves and soothe your senses.

7. Spiritual strength:

The strong aroma of Wintergreen essential oil improves attentiveness and stimulates the mind. Applying this oil to your skin is said to heighten the vibration of the body and accentuate sound.

Increased vibration helps in unveiling spiritual awareness and paves way to the harmony of self and divinity. This attribute has made Wintergreen oil to be an incredible part of the ancient chants (mantras) and meditations where sound was used for adding spiritual strength.

Wintergreen essential oil improves logical thinking and stimulates mental power. Apart from all these natural benefits, this oil is used as a flavoring agent in candies, root beer, chewing gums, smokeless tobacco, mouth fresheners, mouthwash like Listerine, in toothpastes and certain other oral care products. It is also used as a solvent in printmaking.

Disclaimer:

Ingesting Wintergreen essential oil should be strictly avoided as it is highly toxic and can cause serious health effects. 1 fl oz of this oil is equivalent to 171 adult aspirin tablets. Use it only as a topical application after diluting it with soothing carrier oils in 1:10 ratio.

This oil has blood-thinning effects and should be avoided by people who are susceptible to aspirin. Never use it on children below 12 years of age, pets, pregnant women and on broken skin. Consult your healthcare practitioner before using Wintergreen essential oil for your individual constitution.

The MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) of Wintergreen oil is readily available for your enhanced safety and better usage.

Gas Chromatography Report (GC analysis) of Wintergreen oil.

Wintergreen Oil Possible Skin Issues:

Greener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 Possible Skin Issues:

See => http://www.essentialdepot.com/GreenerLifeDiamond.html

Wintergreen oil can also be called as methyl salicylate as this essential oil contains about 99.9% of the methyl salicylate component. Besides being an excellent analgesic equivalent to the aspirin, it leaves behind trepidation with numerous adverse effects on the human system.

Alarmed as a toxic substance, Methyl salicylate is claimed as a neurotoxic, teratogenic and unsafe during pregnancy, labor and nursing.

Poisoning due to Methyl salicylate is said to cause adverse dermal conditions, vomiting, sweating, respiratory alkalosis, pulmonary and laryngeal edema, fluid retention, lethargy, tinnitus, internal haemorrhage, restrains blood clotting and should not be used when using blood-thinning drugs.

“Methyl salicylate is much more toxic than salicylates” quotes the book, Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. Various studies also witness that lethal poisoning of methyl salicylate in Wintergreen oil can happen by absorption through the skin cells.  Mainly due to the aspirin-like qualities of Methyl salicylate, there are chances for bleeding and other subsequent side effects when applied on the skin for treating pain and spasms.

The safe maximum dermal use level of Wintergreen oil is 2.4% as per the International Fragrance Association (IFRA). According to the Health Canada Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist, March 2011, the safe maximum level of external use of methyl salicylate in topical products is 1%. This level of usage is applicable only for topically used products and is invalid for rinse-off products, including soaps, shampoos and other bathing products.

A 2007 study, published in the Cal Journal of Emergency Medicine reveals that percutaneous (effected through the skin surface) absorption of Methyl salicylate in Wintergreen oil and other salicylates, may end up in acute poisoning, especially in people with renal failure. This study also concluded that based upon the autopsy, the death of an elderly man with renal failure occurred due to the continuous dermal absorption of Wintergreen oil.

Skrakosch studies on ointments containing salicylic acid, state that the factors affecting the dermal absorption of salicylate are “the effect of salicylic acid on the epidermis, the pathologic state of the skin, the degree of hydration of the stratum corneum, and the solvents used.” Based upon the studies on volunteers with normal skin, it was found that salicylate ointments caused damage to the epidermis within 2 to 14 days.

The use of methyl salicylate is prone to interact with drugs when used along with anticoagulant medication (warfarin) and GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease). It is good to avoid Wintergreen oil if you are sensitive to salicylates and certain other skin conditions as it may trigger skin damage. Methyl salicylate is also said to inhibit platelet aggregation.

Along with Methyl salicylate and aspirin, all kinds of salicylates are teratogenic in nature and might harm the fetus so it is best avoided during pregnancy, labor and while nursing. The reproductive toxicity of Methyl salicylate has been witnessed as reproductively toxic in rodents and it can also be 4.5 times more poisonous in humans than in rodents.

Various studies have proved the high mortality rate of methyl salicylate accounting to 50 to 60% with 4 to 8 ml used in children is reported as the lethal dose for children. Use of Methyl salicylate on children (including infants and toddlers) should be strictly avoided, (especially in children with ADHD-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), patients with hypersensitivity, asthma, gastro-intestinal irritation, inflammation and salicylate allergy.

Studies have proved the neurotoxic effects of Methyl salicylate, the excess of which can end up in death via respiratory collapse and cardiopulmonary arrest. Based on the analysis of deadly salicylate poisoning cases, it was detected in post-mortem examination that about 18% had abnormalities in the nervous system.

Wintergreen essential oil used in a diluted form, blended with safe carrier oils like coconut oil is safe only for external use. Never ingest Wintergreen oil as Methyl salicylate is highly fatal and may cause severe toxicity. The most prevalent symptoms of Methyl salicylate poisoning are fever, excitation of central nervous system, high blood pressure, confusion, rapid breathing, convulsions and even coma.

Reference Links Substantiating the Possible Skin Issues of Wintergreen Oil:

  1. Salicylate Toxicity from Ingestion and Continued Dermal Absorption Rachel L. Chin, MD, Kent R. Olson, MD, and Delia Dempsey, MS, MD, published in Cal Journal of Emergency Medicine
  2. Management priorities in Salicylate Poisoning by The American College of Medical Toxicology
  3. Aspirin and other Salicylate poisoning by Gerald F. O’Malley, DO, Thomas Jefferson University and Hospital; Rika O’Malley, MD, published in the professional version of the MSD Manuals
  4. Methyl Salicylate by Wikipedia
  5. Treatment of Low Back Pain: The Potential Clinical and Public Health Benefits of Topical Herbal Remedies by Patricia R. Hebert, PhD, E. Joan Barice, MD and Charles H. Hennekens, published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
  6. Wintergreen Oil – Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals by Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young
  7. Safety Information on Essential Oils by the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy
  8. Case Reports of Adverse Events of Wintergreen oil by American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook, Second Edition edited by Zoë Gardner, Michael McGuffin

Suggested Reading:

  1. Potter’s New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations by R. C. Wren
  2. Herbal Healing for Women by Rosemary Gladstar
  3. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: The Complete Guide to the Use of Oils in Aromatherapy & Herbalism by Julia Lawless
  4. The Essential Herbal for Natural Health: How to Transform Easy-to-Find Herbs into Healing Remedies for the Whole Family by Holly Bellebuono

Reference Links:

  1. Methyl Salicyclate by Wikipedia
  2. Ayurvedic and Herbal remedies for Arthriti by Dr. Narendra Jain
  3. Treatment of Gout  – The Ayurvedic Way by Ravi Bhanot, Ayurvedic Researcher, The Ayurveda Institute of Europe
  4. Wintergreen by Georgetown University Medical Center

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Wormwood Essential Oil


wormwood-bannerWormwood is botanically known as Artemisia absinthium. It is widely known as an effective remedy for treating worms like tape worms, round worms, hook worms etc in the human body. With its narcotic effects, Wormwood was an important part of the popular alcoholic beverages like Absinthe, which is prohibited now.

Wormwood essential oil is extracted from the flowering tops, twigs and leaves through steam distillation process. Ginger is an incredible part of numerous Ayurvedic remedies and with an alternative name as Green Ginger, wormwood herb and its therapeutic oil has been used for more than thousands of years in Ayurveda, the ancient wisdom of healing humanity.

Historical uses of Wormwood and its essential oil:

The spectacular fact about Wormwood is that it was used by Hippocrates, the ancient Greek Physician and the father of western medicine. Many ancient monks and nuns used this bitter herb in the form of an elixir for its detoxifying properties.

The prehistoric use of Wormwood has been mentioned in Bible and the first century writings of Greece and Rome, where the herb was said to be placed in the sandals of Roman warriors to pacify their sore feet.

Saint Hildegard of Bingen, known as the Doctor of the Church and Sibyl of the Rhine was highly celebrated for her brilliance in medicinal and botanical writings, philosophy, music and much more. She used Wormwood herb to treat melancholy, digestive disorders, elimination process, improper functioning of lungs and heart.

She advised her patients to consume the fresh juice of wormwood leaves mixed with honey and warm wine on empty stomach on every third day from the month of May to October. Hildegard trusted that the use of wormwood herb helped in promoting the functioning of the entire system by effectively eliminating the toxins from the arteries through kidneys and preventing the accumulation of black bile, which is the melancholic humor.

Health benefits of Wormwood essential oil:

Wormwood was used for spiritual and psychic work in the primordial times and the essential oil of Wormwood is trusted to treat numerous health disorders ranging from fever to flatulence.

The predominant health benefits of Wormwood essential oil are:

wormwood-broucher1. Effective against worms and parasites:

Worms and parasites in the body are often the main reason for curtailing the normal growth, especially in children. This is mainly because these foreign bodies absorb the nutrients from the food and restrict the system from gaining the required nourishment.

With its Vermifuge property and high toxic effects, wormwood herb and its essential oil is considered as the most powerful natural remedy in killing worms and parasites. In certain cases this oil is given as an enema in treating worms in the rectum and intestines.

2. Supports the digestive system:

Wormwood essential oil nurtures the digestive system and effectively helps in removing the toxic substances known as ama from the body. According to Ayurveda, improper digestion is the root cause for all kinds of illnesses as the undigested food particles turn as toxins and curb the normal functioning of the body. Wormwood essential oil strengthens the entire digestive system with its carminative, stomachic, cholagogue, anthelmintic, tonic and stimulant properties.

The presence of artabsin and absinthin in Wormwood oil are responsible for the bitter taste, which acts as a stimulant in enlivening the taste buds and improving the secretion of saliva and perking up the natural appetite of an individual.

It promotes proper discharge of bile secretion from the liver to the stomach and effectively counterbalances the excess acid substance while assisting the complete process of metabolism. All these healing properties of Wormwood essential oil make it a promising remedy in the treatment of acidosis, ulcer, liver and gall bladder problems and numerous other digestive disorders.

3. Alleviates stress and depression:

Disturbed sleep, insomnia, convulsions, fatigue, nervous afflictions, epileptic attacks and certain other mental disturbances often end up in unwanted stress and deep depression. Wormwood essential oil has a natural narcotic effect that helps in calming your nerves and grants complete relaxation by pacifying the entire system.

A well-known research on ‘The Debate About Wormwood and Thujone Psycho-activity‘ proved that the presence of α-thujone (alpha thujone) and β-thujone (beta thujone) in Artemisia absinthium are responsible for Psycho-activity and the higher-potency α-thujone is considered as the primary psychoactive agent. Adding 2 drops of Wormwood essential oil to a tissue and placing it near your pillow can give you great relief for a peaceful night’s sleep.

4. Womanly essential oil:

Being a promising emmenagogue, wormwood essential oil is extremely beneficial in treating womanly problems like irregular menstruation, obstructed periods, uterine fibroids, menopausal problems, dysmennorhea and all other symptoms that accompany menstruation.

The emmenagogue property in this oil enhances the blood circulation in the uterus and pelvic region while strengthening the pelvic floor muscles. This oil is also used as a pain reliever during labor.

Ayurveda recommends Abhyanga or the art of massaging in an Ayurvedic manner for treating problems related to menstruation and menopause. Gently massaging 2 to 3 drops of wormwood essential oil along with sesame oil or coconut oil can grant significant relief and support the health of the female reproductive system.

5. Keeps away fever and infections:

Wormwood essential oil is effectual in treating fever due to bacterial and viral infections and this healing property is attributed to the presence of the toxic components like α-thujone and β-thujone, which act as a shield to the body and protects it from microbes and other harmful infections.

A research by the Cancer institute on the effectiveness of Complementary and alternative medicine in 2004 witnessed that Wormwood is powerful in treating fever and was used in Malaria treatment. The ancient Africans and Asians used Wormwood to combat malaria and to treat few other mosquito-borne diseases.

6. Fights against cancer:

The chemical properties of Wormwood have been proved as a potent cancer treatment by the Bioengineering researchers of the University of Washington. It has been witnessed that this derivative killed almost all the human breast cancer cells exposed to it within a time span of 16 hours. They also said that this wormwood derivative is “highly toxic to the cancer cells, but has a marginal impact on normal breast cells”.

7. Enriches the human body:

The great news is that Wormwood essential oil acts as a tonic to the entire system by stimulating the digestive system, improving the functioning of the circulatory system, strengthening the immune system, acting as a cardiac tonic, fortifying the nervous system and supporting the working of the excretory system, enabling the body to expel the unwanted toxic substances and stay vigilant at all times.

The natural and strong aroma of Wormwood essential oil makes it an important component of certain deodorants. This oil can also be used as a powerful insect repellant with its poisonous effects. Adding few drops of Wormwood oil to your vaporizers, sprays and fumigants can help you keep the harmful insects at bay.

Disclaimer:

Wormwood essential oil is a neurotoxin and has narcotic effects so never ingest this essential oil as it may harm the system. Essential oils are highly concentrated and do not apply this oil directly to your skin and always remember to blend it with carrier oils. Consult your medical practitioner before using the right essential oil for your health and your constitution.

Wormwood Essential Oil – Possible Skin Issues:

Greener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 – Possible Skin Issues:

See => http://www.essentialdepot.com/GreenerLifeDiamond.html

Wormwood oil is considered as a narcotic oil when used in higher doses. The adverse effects of Wormwood oil is attributed to the presence of chemical constituent thujone, which contributes to about 50 percent of the oil. Thujone containing oils are restricted prevalently, mainly due to the concern of its psychotropic, nephrotoxic and neurotoxic effects. It may cause skin irritation, redness, eruptions in sensitive skin and dermatitis.

Studies witness the excitation of the autonomic nervous system due to convulsions and binding of the GABA receptors caused due to α and β-thujone. It is also a known fact that high amount of thujone and its metabolites can induce convulsions, unconsciousness, seizures, gastrointestinal cramps, insomnia, tremors, dizziness, hallucinations, vomiting, headaches, retention of urine, renal lesions, congestive heart failure and rhabdomyolysis (collapse of muscular fibers).

Wormwood should never be used internally as there are numerous studies witnessing the severe toxic effects of ingesting this oil and few cases include absinthism and the acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis in a person who drank about 10 ml of Wormwood oil; In an another case, the intake of 60 ml of Wormwood oil ended up in seizure, altered mental faculty, attention disability, rhabdomyolysis and hyperthermia.

Blend Wormwood oil in mild carrier oils like Coconut oil or Avocado oil before topical use as pure and organic essential oils are highly concentrated substances and can harm the skin surface if used in a concentrated form. The safe level of dermal use for this oil is 0.4% by IFRA (International Fragrance Association).

Dr. William Smith in a Medico-Chirurgical transaction study talks about the case of poisoning by Wormwood oil. It is stated that this oil has narcotic influence that may have negative impact on the nervous system, causing headache, convulsions, giddiness, vomiting, tremors and paralysis.

The PanAfrican Medical Journal study talks about the burning effects of Wormwood herb, where a 50 year old woman reported a severe pain in the facial skin with a dry and delicate erythema in the cheeks and forehead classified as an initial degree burn.

It was concluded that the presence of toxic agents, like thujone and malic acid were responsible for the adverse effects like redness, skin sensitivity and chemical burns. It was termed as a phytodermatose, which are lesions on the skin due to the frequent contact with certain herbs. Research reports also state that thujone is porphyrogenic in nature and can be hazardous for patients with defective hepatic heme synthesis.

With thujone being the toxic component, using Wormwood oil can act as a threat to pregnancy as it may affect the health of the uterus with its emmenagogue and abortifacient effects and is good to continue avoiding this oil during lactation as well.

It is advisable to restrict the use of this oil on children as they have a sensitive skin. Wormwood oil can also cause allergic reactions on the skin for those who are susceptible to plants of the Compositae/Asteraceae family like the Marigold, Ragweed, Chrysanthemum etc.,

Reference Links Substantiating the Possible Skin Issues of Wormwood Oil:

  1. Artemisia absinthium: burning plant! By Najia Ilham El Makrini, Badredine Hassam, Department of Dermatology, Ibn Sina Hospital, Rabat, Morocco published in the PanAfrican Medical Journal
  2. Case of Poisoning by Oil of Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) by Dr. William Smith, Surgeon Chesterfield and North Derbyshire Hospital, published in Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, Royal Society of Medicine
  3. Wormwood by Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals By Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young
  4. Wormwood Toxicology by Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics by Ikhlas A. Khan and Ehab A. Abourashed
  5. Adverse events and side effects of Artemisia absinthium by American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook, Second Edition by Zoe Gardner, Michael McGuffin
  6. Toxicology and adverse reactions of Wormwood by Drugs.com
  7. Side effects of Wormwood by University of Michigan Health System

Thought for the day:

Life is not living, but living in health. 

– Martial, Roman poet

Suggested Reading:

  1. Artemisia (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles) by Colin W. Wright
  2. Complete Aromatherapy Handbook: Essential Oils for Radiant Health by Susanne Fischer-Rizzi
  3. Aromatherapy for the Soul: Healing the Spirit with Fragrance and Essential Oils by Valerie Ann Worwood

Reference Links:

  1. Wormwood by Ingrid Naiman
  2. Health Benefits of Wormwood Essential Oil by Organic Facts
  3. Wormwood by Cancer.Org
  4. Wormwood Ancient Chinese Folk Remedy May Hold Key to Non-Toxic Cancer Treatment by Dr. Clark Information Center