Lemongrass Essential Oil



Lemon-grass-bannerNature’s super glue for the human body is the right way to honor Lemongrass essential oil because it is as quick and fast as any branded adhesive glue in repairing torn tendons, ligaments, cartilages, tenosynovitis, inflamed tissues and certain other connective tissue injuries. This oil smells heavenly and is much similar to the aroma of Lemon oil but with a comparatively gentle, sweet and soothing aroma.

Used as a celebrated culinary herb in Thai and Chinese cuisines, Lemongrass is often used to substitute Lemon.  This essential oil is extracted from the grassy leaves through steam distillation process. Ayurveda makes use of this ancient herb in treating weak digestion, poor circulation, poor concentration, fever, varicose veins, intestinal infections and certain infectious skin problems.

Purchase Lemongrass Oil – Retail – 4 oz – CLICK HERE

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Historical uses of Lemongrass and its essential oil:

Indigenous to the southern parts of India, this spectacular herb is also found growing in South East Asian countries including Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. It is also cultivated in United States especially in Florida and California.

Lemongrass is a celebrated culinary herb in the Caribbean and Chinese cuisines. This aromatic herb blends well with garlic, ginger, cilantro and other spices used in flavoring a wide variety of Caribbean soups especially the seafood soups. Powdered Lemongrass has been used in Asia for giving incredible flavor to traditional dishes made with meat, poultry, seafood and vegetables. It is also used in spicing up pickles and marinades.

Widely known as ‘Fever Grass’, Lemongrass is popular in the Asian countries since the primordial times for its ability to bring down fever and normalize the body temperature during hot weather. It is either used in tea or in foot-baths for reducing fever and excess heat in the body. This tea is also believed to treat ringworm, lice, scabies and few other skin problems.

The Traditional Chinese Medicine used Lemongrass for treating headache, rheumatism, abdominal pain and cold. This herb was also a part of the Brazilian folklore medicine for calming the mind, treating muscular spasms, cramps and fatigue. Powdered along with black pepper, Lemongrass was used as a powerful Ayurvedic remedy for relieving menstrual cramps, nausea, irregular periods, fever and other infectious diseases.

Therapeutic properties of Lemongrass essential oil:

The remedial properties of Lemongrass essential oil are antiseptic, anti-rheumatic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, astringent, analgesic, sedative, deodorant, galactogogue, nervine, tonic, carminative, antimicrobial, antidepressant, febrifuge, bactericidal, fungicidal, deodorant, antipyretic and nervine.

Chemical constituents or Gas Chromatography Report of Lemongrass essential oil:

According to the Gas chromatography report, Lemongrass oil constitutes of 5 chemical components that contribute to its exotic fragrance, therapeutic properties and quality.

The major chemical constituents of this oil are citral (Geranial and Neral – approximately 85% of the oil), geraniol, geranyl acetate and beta-Caryophyllene.

Just click on:

for getting to know more about the exclusive information of these key constituents of Lemongrass oil.

The table below on the Gas Chromatography report talks about the principal chemical constituents and its role in granting the therapeutic and other attributes to Lemongrass oil.

Lemongrass-oilAyurvedic health benefits of Lemongrass essential oil:

Ayurveda uses infinite number of herbs in the process of healing humanity and Lemongrass is one such vital herbal whiz kid that has been helping mankind in treating innumerable diseases.

Known as Sera and Bhustrina in India, Lemongrass has been used in various Ayurvedic treatments for treating kidney infections, headache, problems with connective tissues, weak immune system and depression.

More than 5,000 years old, Ayurveda is by far the oldest of all healing sciences on earth and is the Mother of other complementary and alternative medicinal practices like Siddha, Homeopathy, Aromatherapy, Chiropractic, Acupuncture, Homeopathy, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Unani and much more. This science of wisdom has left behind innumerable complex healing systems using simple methodologies.

The ancient Ayurvedic philosophers Charaka and Sushruta encompassed the most important Ayurvedic remedies for all sorts of diseases. The most intricate medical practices even with today’s contemporary medicinal equipments and techniques are C-section surgery and Plastic surgery. Won’t you simply be amazed if I say that these two were a part of the Ayurvedic treatments???!!!! Yes.

Sushruta is called as the father of Plastic surgery and C-section deliveries were executed for the most critical cases where the baby or the mother turns breathless at the time of delivery.

The magnificence of Ayurvedic healing lies in its trust and usage of natural remedies like herbs, healthy and balanced diet, essential oils, yoga, simple physical exercises, meditation with an Ayurvedic routine. This aims at treating illnesses, preventing them in future along with healthy aging. Ayurvedic texts define health as a combination of physical, mental and spiritual wellness.

Every human being is made of a unique individual constitution that comprises of three biological energies known as doshas namely pitta, vata and kapha. A person’s physical setup, personality and behavior are determined by the predominance of any one of these doshas.

Imbalance between these doshas is responsible for ill-health and Ayurvedic remedies focus on balancing these doshas. Lemongrass essential oil alleviates excess kapha and pitta dosha while it has a neutral effect on vata dosha.

The Ayurvedic health benefits of Lemongrass essential oil are as follows:

Lemongrass-broucher1. Fights against harmful micro-organisms:

Lemongrass essential oil has been proved effective against micro-organisms like bacteria, fungi and certain other microbes. Few studies witnessed that Lemongrass oil is more potent than streptomycin or penicillin in fighting against staph infection. Staphylococcus is the major bacterium responsible for making wounds turn septic.

Applying 2 drops of Lemongrass oil mixed with 15 to 20 drops of coconut oil on wounds, cuts, acne, burns, sores and other skin infections aids in healing the wounds and curbs the growth of micro-organisms that worsen skin problems. This effect can also be attributed to the antiseptic properties of this oil.

A 2008 study on ‘Antifungal activity of the Lemongrass oil and citral against Candida spp’ state that Lemongrass essential oil and citral are effective against various types of yeasts of Candida species including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis, proving its potent in vitro activity against Candida spp, responsible for the most common fungal infection Candidiasis.

Certain other studies suggest that Lemongrass oil can also assist in combating the growth of fungi like Alternaria alternata, which is said to cause infections in the upper respiratory tract.

Gently massaging your body with 5 drops of Lemongrass oil blended with 2.5 ml olive oil can assist in inhibiting the growth of bacteria and microbes both externally and internally. This aids in treating microbial infections in the respiratory system, skin, stomach, colon, urinary tracts and other parts of the body.

2. Reduces fever and pain:

Being an anti-pyretic and febrifuge, the essential oil of Lemongrass reduces fever by fighting against infections causing fever, promote sweating and by eliminating the harmful toxins in the body through urine. According to the Ayurvedic philosophy, pitta dosha is responsible for body temperature and fever is an indication of increased pitta energy.

Lemongrass essential oil is known to reduce pitta dosha and by this way it lessens the body temperature even during high fevers. Add 2 drops of this oil in warm water for a remedial foot bath for reducing fever or massage your foot soles with 2 drops of Lemongrass oil mixed with 1 ml of coconut oil for relief from fever.

This oil also lessens excess of kapha energy that causes fluid retention in the body causing respiratory problems, rheumatism, pain and inflammation.

Gently massaging the painful areas with 2 drops of Lemongrass oil mixed with 1 ml of sesame oil helps in relieving pain, inflammation and rheumatism by eliminating the excess fluids and toxic substances through urine and sweat.  The analgesic action of this oil helps in soothing pain, tired muscles, headache, joint pain and back pain.

3. Enhances immunity and strengthens the nervous system:

Lemongrass herb and its essential oil have excellent nutrients and chemical components that benefit the entire system and augment the immune power, which makes the body naturally resistant against diseases. It acts as a tonic to the human body and strengthens the functioning of the digestive system, nervous system, excretory system and respiratory system by stimulating the process of absorbing essential nutrients by the body.

Lemongrass oil is used in Ayurvedic massaging for fortifying the nerves, limbs, muscles and tissues. Massaging your body with 6 drops of Lemongrass oil blended with 3 ml of olive oil can assist in treating nervous problems like vertigo, convulsions, Alzheimer’s disease, sluggishness, Parkinson’s disease and nervousness.

4. Eliminates toxic substances in the body:

Stagnation of ama (toxic substances) in the body is one of the primary reason for illnesses according to Ayurveda. The diaphoretic and diuretic properties of Lemongrass Oil increase the frequency and quantity of urination through which the harmful toxins in the body are vented out.

This action also aids in improving digestion, cleansing the kidneys and discharging harmful infection causing foreign bodies. You can add 2 drops of Lemongrass oil in warm bathing water or in foot bath or massage your body with 3 drops of this oil with 2 ml of sesame oil for getting rid of all the toxic substances from your body.

5. Combats cancer cells and supports the digestive system:

A 2009 study on the anticancer activity of Lemongrass essential oil against 12 human cancer cell lines proved that Lemongrass oil “has a promising anticancer activity and causes loss in tumor cell viability by activating the apoptotic process as identified by electron microscopy.” Certain other studies also state that the presence of a-limonene and geraniol showed inhibition of cancer cells in intestinal mucous membrane and liver in mice.

Excess of pitta energy causes cholera, flatulence, intestinal gas and weak digestion. Lemongrass essential oil reduces pitta dosha and normalizes the process of digestion. Gently massaging your abdomen with 2 drops of Lemongrass oil blended with 1 ml of sesame oil will assist in improving digestion. Inhaling the aroma of this oil by applying 1 drop of Lemongrass oil on your wrist or to your hankie can stimulate weak digestion.

6. Treats obesity and depression:

Obesity is a universal problem and excess of kapha dosha causes fluid retention, excess deposits of fat and stagnation of water and other toxic substances in the body. Stress, tension and depression also cause metabolic changes and contribute to obesity. Lemongrass essential oil lessens kapha dosha by decreasing the appetite, removing excess water and fat deposits from the body through urine and sweat.

A study by the Department of Nutritional Sciences of University of Wisconsin studied the effect of Lemongrass and cholesterol in 22 people with high levels of cholesterol where they took 140mg of lemongrass oil capsules daily. This study came up with an amazing result where the cholesterol level was reduced from 310 to 294 on an average basis, which was a significant amount of decrease in the amount of blood fats.

Using 5 drops of Lemongrass oil blended with 2.5 ml of coconut oil as a massage oil or 3 drops of this oil added to warm bathing water can help in discharging excess fat, water and fluid retention in your body and helps you in reducing your excess weight.

In the book ‘Ayurveda and Aromatherapy’, Bryan Miller states that Lemongrass essential oil is an excellent antidepressant oil that can assist in alleviating stress, depression, fatigue, negative feelings, emotional trauma and distress. Using 2 drops of Lemongrass oil in vaporizer, burner or diffuser can assist in driving away negative emotions, insomnia, loneliness, emotional instability, mental stagnation and lack of self-confidence.

The Journal of Ethno pharmacology published a 2011 study, which stated that Lemongrass essential oil possess anti-anxiety properties that would aid in lessening anxiety by stimulating the brain levels of the neurotransmitter gamma-amino butyric acid.

Other health benefits:

Lemongrass essential oil is also a great natural remedy for treating menstrual problems and its galactogogue properties help improve the quality and quantity of breast milk in nursing mothers. It is a trusted insect repellant and can also serve as a natural air freshener with its refreshing aroma.

Disclaimer:

Pure and organic essential oils are highly concentrated liquids so never take them internally. Always remember to dilute essential oils before using it topically. This article is only for the purpose of education and is not meant to diagnose or replace any prescribed medicines or professional advice. Consult your Ayurvedic practitioner before using essential oils that would fit your unique individual constitution and state of health.

The MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) of Lemongrass oil is readily available for your enhanced safety and optimal usage.

Gas Chromatography Report of Lemongrass essential oil

Thought for the day:

Knowing trees, I understand the meaning of patience. Knowing grass, I can appreciate persistence. 

-Hal Borland

Suggested Reading:

  1. HEALING POWERS OF LEMONGRASS OIL (The Aromatherapy Professional) by KG Stiles
  2. The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: The Complete Guide to the Use of Aromatic Oils In Aromatherapy, Herbalism, Health, and Well Being by Julia Lawless
  3. Skin Delivery of Lemongrass Oil by Microemulsion Technique: Herbal formulation for Acne Vulgaris by Md Faiyazuddin, Sanjula Baboota
  4. Lemongrass Essential Oils: Biosynthesis and Regulation by Deepak Ganjewala

Reference Links:

  1. Antifungal activity of the lemongrass oil and citral against Candida spp by Silva Cde B, Guterres SS, Weisheimer V, Schapoval EE published in PubMed
  2. Health Benefits of Lemongrass Essential Oil by Organic Facts
  3. Anticancer activity of an essential oil from Cymbopogon flexuosus by Sharma PR, Mondhe DM, Muthiah S, Pal HC, Shahi AK, Saxena AK, Qazi GN, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, India published in PubMed
  4. Lemongrass Health Benefits and Healing Properties by PlanetWell Ayurvedic Wellness
  5. Lemongrass Herbal Medicine by Medical Health Guide

Orange Bitter Essential Oil



Orange-bitter-bannerBitter’ has been the most neglected taste all around the world and the truth is that bitter things are often better for your fitness regime. On a deeper note, most of the medicines are bitter and they pave way for the sweet fruit of health and harmony.

Unlike the sweet oranges, bitter oranges are not much favored mainly for its tart, astringent and acidic taste. Since the ancient times, bitter oranges and the essential oil cold pressed from the rind of these fruits have carried away the world of medicine with its enormous medicinal values.

Known as Narange in Sanskrit, bitter orange is used in Ayurveda in the treatment of gout, gastrointestinal problems, lack of appetite, anxiety and digestive disorders.

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Scientifically known as Citrus aurantium, bitter orange is an evergreen tree indigenous to the tropical parts of Asia and Africa. Almost all the parts of this tree are used in extracting essential oils due its healing values.

Essential oil extracted from the leaves and twigs of this tree is known as Petitgrain oil, the oil distilled from the flowers of this tree is the celebrated Neroli oil and the oil extracted from the peel of the bitter orange fruit is called as Bitter orange essential oil.

Historical importance of Bitter Orange:

The Traditional Chinese Medicine used bitter oranges as a natural carminative and tonic for treating dyspepsia. They also used dried bitter oranges in the treatment of diarrhea, ptosis of the anus and uterus, blood in feces and abdominal distention.

The rind of bitter orange fruits were used in Homeopathy for relieving abdominal pain, headache, constipation, digestive disorders, weight loss and high blood pressure. Due to the presence of the active ingredient synephrine, bitter oranges are used in herbal medicinal system as an appetite suppressant and as a stimulant.

The Brazilian folklore medicine used bitter orange and its oil in treating insomnia and anxiety. The ancient Europeans used it as a prophylactic and as a sedative for curing nervous problems, gastrointestinal disorders, insomnia, sore throat and gout.

This medicinal herb has been in use in various cultures across the globe in the treatment of cancer, anaphylactic shock, cardiac exhaustion, heartburn, fungal infections and certain other heart problems.

The native Latin Americans used it in the preparation of a tonic for treating insomnia, lessening anxiety and also as a laxative. It is also used in the United States as an effective aid in preventing colon, breast and skin cancer.

In addition, bitter orange essential oil is used in flavoring baked goods, alcoholic beverages, gelatins, candies, puddings, meat products, frozen desserts and certain other condiments. It is also used as a marinade for meat in the Haitian, Cuban, Nicaraguan and Dominican cooking.

Therapeutic properties and constituents of Bitter orange essential oil:

The remedial properties of this oil are antiseptic, carminative, sedative, stomachic, digestive, antidepressant, anti-hyper cholesterolemic, tranquilizer, anti-inflammatory, choleretic, antifungal and antibacterial. Synephrine, tyramine metabolites N-methyltyramine, pinene, carotenoids, limonene, cymene, camphene, octopamine, ocimene and few other alkaloids are its major chemical constituents.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Bitter orange essential oil:

Ayurveda is the oldest of all the healing methodologies in the world and it still flourishes due to the simplicity it preaches and practices in its remedial rule. According to this ancient science, every individual is a part of nature and his/her poor health and good health depends upon their harmony with nature.

Sickness in Ayurveda is a strong symbol that the individual’s system is out of balance with nature and needs immediate assistance with natural remedies like essential oils, herbal medications, yoga, healthy lifestyle and meditation.

Ayurvedic remedies aim at treating the actual root cause of an illness instead of treating the illness alone and suggests an Ayurvedic routine for preventing such illnesses in the future as well.

Every human being according to Ayurvedic principle is unique with an individual constitution that comprises of three energy elements known as doshas, namely vata, pitta and kapha. The predominance of any one of these doshas determines the personality and characteristics of an individual and imbalance of any of these doshas leads to diseases.

Ayurvedic treatments vary from individual to individual based upon their dosha predominance and unique constitution. Bitter orange essential oil is said to increase vata and pitta doshas and pacify kapha dosha.

The Ayurvedic health benefits of Bitter orange oil are:

Orange-bitter-broucher1. Treats skin problems:

Bitter orange essential oil has been proved effective in treating numerous skin problems with its antiseptic, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The rind of this fruit from which its essential oil is extracted contains non-bitter flavonoids, which is known to have considerable venotonic properties.

It is for this reason; bitter orange essential oil is used in cosmetics for preventing capillary fragility. Bitter orange extracts are also used in the treatment of cellulites as it has the potent to normalize the affected parts and stimulate the cutaneous tone of the skin.

The effects and unique properties of bitter orange essential oil in the Aromatherapy Workbook by Shirley Price states bitter orange essential oil “help restore an acne skin to normal and is prophylactic against the signs of ageing”. When applied to the affected area after blending 2 drops of bitter orange oil with coconut oil, the antifungal properties of this oil help in treating fungal infections like athlete’s foot and ringworm.

Bitter orange oil also acts as a natural antiseptic and aids in clearing acne, cold sores, wounds, psoriasis, eczema and certain other skin problems due to excessive stagnation of oil. You can add 2 drops of bitter orange oil with refreshing carrier oil like jojoba oil or to your skin care creams and lotions and gently massage onto the affected parts for quicker effects.

2. Enhances the digestive mechanism:

For more than thousands of years, bitter orange has been used in the world of Complementary medicine for treating digestive problems like flatulence, dyspepsia, constipation, sluggish digestion, loss of appetite, intestinal gas, nausea and indigestion.

Gently massaging your stomach with 2 drops of bitter orange oil blended with sesame oil can help you enhance the entire process of digestion. You can also add 2 drops of this oil to your bath tub to help with digestive disorders.

3. Assists in weight-loss:

Weight loss supplements with bitter orange formula are the most popular and the recent use of bitter oranges in the therapeutic world. Numerous researches have proved the effectiveness of bitter orange supplements in treating obesity.

“At present, Citrus aurantium may be the best thermogenic substitute for Ephedra” reveals the Georgetown University Medical Center study on ‘Citrus aurantium as a thermogenic, weight-reduction replacement for Ephedra’.

A recent research on ‘The safety of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine’ states “The data indicate that based on current knowledge, the use of bitter orange extract and p-synephrine appears to be exceedingly safe with no serious adverse effects being directly attributable to these ingredients”.

It also notes that bitter orange extract and its principal protoalkaloidal constituent p-synephrine are extensively used in weight management, weight loss and products promoting sports performance.

A 2006 study on ‘Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity’ by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, MD, USA states that there are certain promising evidences that Citrus aurantium containing several compounds including synephrine alkaloids is a safe alternative to Ephedra, which is a weight-loss supplement banned in US for its adverse health effects.

To boost your metabolism and lessen energy absorption, you can massage your body with 2 to 3 drops of bitter orange oil blended with coconut oil or add 3 drops of this oil to your bath tub.

4. Alleviates stress and reduces anxiety:

Bitter orange oil has a much similar aroma to that of fresh tangy oranges. Inhaling the energizing and enlivening fragrance of this oil especially during the early hours of the day promises a serene atmosphere and instills complete calmness in your mind.

This is why Ayurvedic healing suggests the use of bitter orange oil during your meditation practice. Add 1 drop of bitter orange oil to your diffuser or air freshener and start your deep meditation after which you will feel a never before freshness and increase in your confidence level.

The Aromatherapy expert, Dr. Vivian Lunny recommends an invigorating bath blend with 2 drops of bitter orange oil, 1 drop of neroli oil and 2 drops of petitgrain oil for reducing anxiety, lethargy and tiredness.

When added to your warm bathing water especially after a tiring and stressful day, this blend is said to give a new lease of life, augment stress relief, promote relaxation and stimulate positive feelings. You can also add 1 drop of bitter orange oil to your handkerchief or to your pulse points to renew yourself throughout the day.

Other benefits:

Bitter orange essential oil is also used in treating chronic fatigue syndrome, intestinal ulcers, lowering blood sugar level in diabetic patients, sleep disorders, joint pain, muscular aches, bruises, cold and certain other liver and gall bladder problems.

It is also used in making soaps, cleaning products, disinfectants, cosmetics, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, eau de colognes and certain other household cleaners. Bitter orange oil is also used as a commercial flavoring agent in foods and beverages in many countries.

Disclaimer:

Pure and organic essential oils are highly concentrated liquids so always use it after diluting in suitable carrier oils. Never use essential oils internally. Citrus oils in general have a photo-toxic effect so avoid going out in the sun immediately after using it on your skin.

Pregnant women, nursing mothers, children and people suffering from hypertension and glaucoma should avoid using bitter orange oil. Always consult your Ayurvedic practitioner before choosing the right essential oils for your unique individual constitution.

Bitter Orange Essential Oil – Possible Skin Issues:

bitter-orange-new

Greener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 Possible Skin Issues:

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Bitter orange oil exhibits mild photosensitivity effects if the oil is oxidized, which might cause irritation and hyper-pigmentation of the skin and this happens when visible sunlight gets in touch with the skin for up to 12 hours of usage. The major cause being the response of the chemical components that are photoactive in nature attracts light and ends up in toxicity via molecular alterations.

The safe dermal use level of Bitter orange oil by the International Fragrance Association (IFRA) is 1.25%, specifically to thwart phototoxicity in the products used for topical application and not for soaps, shampoos and other bath preparations. This No-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) is based on various studies with Bitter orange oil on mice and swine, where the No-observed-effects-level (NOEL) was proved as 6.25%.

Besides, Bitter orange oil is Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). “There are no contraindications but that photosensitization may occur in fair-skinned individuals”, quotes The German Commission E monograph for Bitter orange peel.

The major chemical constituent responsible for the skin sensitization and mild irritation of Bitter orange oil is Limonene, which accounts to about 90% of this oil and certain other furanocoumarins.

According to European regulations, essential oils with furanocoumarins should be used in such a way that the overall level of bergapten does not surpass 15 ppm (parts per million) in ready-to-use cosmetic products meant for use on the skin surface that are exposed to sunlight (other than wash-away products) and 1 ppm in sunscreen and bronzing items.

Use Bitter orange oil only for external use and ingestion of this oil should be avoided strictly, as internal use of this oil has adverse effects according to various reports. Medical research studies state that the presence of stimulants like octopamine, amines synephrine (an alkaloid with almost the related chemical structure to ephedrine in Ephedra – Ma-Huang) and N-methyltyramine are responsible for the cardiovascular toxicity of Bitter orange and this is also reported to cause increase in blood pressure and vasoconstriction.

It is recommended to avoid the use of Bitter orange in patients with tachyarrhythmia, hypertension and narrow-angle glaucoma, mainly due its potent to cause additive effects. Overdose of synephrine in children overdose ended up in tachycardia, nausea, quick increase in blood pressure and irritation. Certain researches witness the effect of Bitter orange in restraining human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) in the test tube studies.

Just like Grapefruit, Bitter orange is said to hold back a vital enzyme in the small intestine, and this may possibly have an effect on the levels of blood, when taking certain medications like antiviral, anti-anxiety, antidepressant drugs, statins and calcium channel blockers and along with the intake of caffeine.

Care should be taken if Bitter orange oil is used in massage in the abdominal area, as essential oils penetrate quickly through the skin, reach the bloodstream and may cause adverse effects. It is not recommended to take Bitter orange products when using other prescribed medications, except under strict medical supervision.

Furocoumarins are also used in various remedies on par with the long-wave ultraviolet light therapy for the healing of mycosis fungoides, vitiligo and psoriasis.

Reference Links Substantiating Possible Skin Issues of Bitter Orange Oil:

  1. Bitter Orange by University of Michigan Health System
  2. Bitter Orange, Sour News by University of California, Berkeley Wellness
  3. Bitter Orange Peel and Synephrine by American Botanical Council
  4. Bitter Orange, American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook, Second Edition by Zoe Gardner, Michael McGuffin
  5. Bitter Orange by Drugs.com
  6. Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals By Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young

Thought for the day:

The trees that are slow to grow bear the best fruit. -Moliere

Suggested Reading:

  1. Citrus Essential Oils: Flavor and Fragrance from Wiley
  2. Citrus Oils: Composition, Advanced Analytical Techniques, Contaminants, and Biological Activity (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles) from CRC Press
  3. Aromatherapy Workbook: A Complete Guide to Understanding and Using Essential Oils by Shirley Price
  4. Ayurveda & Aromatherapy: The Earth Essential Guide to Ancient Wisdom and Modern Healing by Dr. Light Miller, Dr. Bryan Miller

Reference Link:

  1. Bitter orange by Wikipedia
  2. Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, MD, USA published in PubMed
  3. Bitter Orange by Drugs.com
  4. The safety of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine by Creighton University Medical Center, NE, USA published in PubMed

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