Benzoin Resin Oil



Fixing up your skin setbacks, respiratory ailments and mental mayhems is just a few steps away, until you reach the sacred aroma of Benzoin essential oil. Blessed with a divine fragrance and handful of healing values, Benzoin has been in use since thousands of years as a holy aromatic agent in temples and other religious ceremonies.

Being a pacifying agent, Benzoin and its essential oil is said to have been used for soothing depression and treat skin disorders. Scientifically known as Styrax benzoin, it is also called as gum Benjamin or gum benzoin.

Used as a natural aid to heighten spiritual oneness and divinity, Benzoin resin was burnt by the ancient saints, Hindu priests and Buddhist monks during prayers and holy congregations.

It was used in various Complementary and Alternative Medicinal systems including Ayurveda, in the treatment of depression, wrinkles, congestion, sinusitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, cough, flatulence, urinary tract infections, premenstrual syndrome, inflamed skin and impotence.

Historical uses and importance of Benzoin resin: Benzoin resin is extracted from the bark of numerous trees of different species in the Styrax genus. Indigenous to the Sumatra and Java islands in Indonesia, Benzoin gets its name from the Arabic word ‘Luban Jawi’, which means Frankincense from Java. The Benzoin tree grows up to a height of 12 meters and is also grown as an ornamental tree in Western Africa.

The crude Balsamic resin is extracted by tapping method, which is nothing but the process of cutting the bark of the tree for obtaining the resin, generally from a seven years old tree. The extracted resin is then left out for 3 to 4 months for drying and hardening. Benzoin resin essential oil is extracted from this resin through a solvent.

It was said that the ancient Egyptians and Chinese imported Benzoin resin via the Red Sea. As an excellent fixative that has the power to embrace the fragrance of many aromatic oils and perfumery ingredients, Benzoin essential oil is a common element in the perfume and incense-making industry.

Benzoin was used in the traditional Malayan civilization as a fumigation and incense, to keep away from evil spirits as well as for ritual uses. Predominantly used as incense for more than 3000 years, Benzoin resin has been powdered and blended with other aromatic items like cypress, pine, labdanum, juniper and galbanum. This blend is then made as cones and kept on the heads of the dancers of Egypt, says Papyrus records.

Queen Elizabeth I used the dry perfumes made with Benzoin and the first use of this enchanting fragrance factor in England is traced between the 15th and 16th centuries. The resin is popular as an incense in Western Catholic Churches and certain Orthodox Christian associations all over the world.

Benzoin resin is also used in the manufacturing of scented wooden chips known as Bakhoor in Arabic. It is also used as mixed resins along with other resins in Horn of Africa and other Arabian provinces. This sweet-smelling resin is burned on charcoal as incense especially during spiritual occasions in India and the Arabian countries of the Persian Gulf.

Chemical constituents and therapeutic properties of Benzoin resin oil: The key chemical components of Benzoin resin essential oil are benzoic acid, coniferyl benzoate, phenylpropylic alcohol, benzaldehyde, cinnamic acid, benzyl benzoate, vanillin and phenylethylene.

The most significant remedial attributes of this oil are antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, astringent, expectorant, disinfectant, antiseptic, anti-rheumatic, cordial, vulnerary, carminative, sedative, relaxant and deodorant.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Benzoin resin oil: Ayurveda embraces nature wholly and it is reflected in every single remedy it prescribes to mankind. This is the most valued attribute that has helped Ayurvedic healing survive and stay in the hearts of many across the globe.

With the immaculate meaning of ‘knowledge of life’, Ayur+Veda is the only healing system on earth that insists on self-awareness about one’s own health condition and individual constitution. This traditional wisdom of healing brings in that wakefulness,  where an individual understands that every human being is being created with all kinds of mental and physical abilities in a clear order.

Ayurveda helps in appreciating this uniqueness and leading a hale and hearty life in sync with nature, which is built with five fundamental elements. They are earth, water, air, space and fire. Everything on earth including the human body is made with these five elements, where the earth takes the form of muscles and bones, water represents blood, fire helps in the biological functions including metabolism, space is the soul that keeps us alive and air assists in breathing.

According to Ayurveda, every human being is a unique part of nature with a unique individual constitution. This constitution is known as Prakriti and is a combination of three biological elements called as doshas. They are vata, pitta and kapha. Every person has a predominance of any one of these doshas and it determines the traits, character and behavioral attributes of a person.

Ayurvedic remedies are based on the predominance of the doshas and the balance between them. Absolute health in Ayurveda is a sign of perfect balance between these doshas and illness indicates doshic imbalances. Ayurvedic healing techniques and medications aim at correcting the disparities between the doshas.

The major natural remedies prescribed in Ayurveda are herbs, plant essential oils, meditation, yoga, simple physical exercises, Ayurvedic routine, prayers and few other Ayurvedic techniques like Panchakarma or Ayurvedic detox, Abhyanga or Ayurvedic massage and Pranayama or Ayurvedic art of balanced breathing.

Benzoin resin oil has moisturizing and warming energies, which helps in tranquilizing the mind and enriching the skin. This oil has the power to pacify vata, pitta and kapha dosha with its sweet-balsamic, pleasant and vanillin based aroma.

The Ayurvedic health benefits of Benzoin resin essential oil are:

Benzoin-Res-Broucher1. Alleviates rheumatic conditions: Rheumatism generally occurs due to the stagnation of excess water deposits in the system. This leads to improper blood circulation, inflammation, swelling, redness, pain, soreness and difficulty in the normal functioning of the body. Excess of water and fluids in the human body is mainly caused due to the imbalance of kapha dosha, which is responsible for similar diseases like obesity, respiratory illnesses etc.,

Benzoin essential oil has anti-rheumatic, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory and diuretic properties that help in promoting proper blood circulation, reducing pain, lessening inflammation, controlling soreness and swelling, and eliminating the surplus water deposits and toxic elements in the system by promoting frequent urination. This function also assists in treating obesity, controlling blood pressure, supporting the functions of the circulatory system and enhancing metabolism.

To get rid of rheumatic and arthritic problems, Ayurveda suggests a healthy diet that naturally controls kapha vitiation along with yogasanas that treat rheumatism and arthritis and the use of Ayurvedic essential oils like Benzoin resin oil.

The Arthritis Foundation reported that a research by the John Hopkins University has concluded that yoga is extremely beneficial for people with rheumatoid arthritis after publishing its research analysis stating that “who participated in eight weeks of yoga classes had significantly fewer tender and swollen joints than they did before starting class.”

Steffany Haaz, the grant recipient of the Arthritis Foundation also says, “We have previously reported that yoga helps people to feel better, and we wanted to make sure it wasn’t harmful to arthritic joints. So, we were glad to find that there actually seems to be improvement in joint symptoms for RA patients.”

Along with this, massage the painful parts with 3 drops of Benzoin resin oil mixed with 1 drop of Ginger oil, 1 drop of Lavender oil, 1 drop of Black pepper oil, 1 drop of Juniper berry oil with 4 ml of coconut oil. You can also add 2 drops of Benzoin resin oil and 2 drops of Marjoram oil in warm bathing water or in hot compress for improved results. This formula works quickly as the benzyl components in the Benzoin oil are easily absorbed by the pores of the skin.

2. Relieves congestion and other respiratory problems: Breathing is the natural action that sustains life. Trouble-free breathing brings in enormous health and happiness by permitting the flow of prana or vital life force in the system.

Any interruption or blockage in the breathing mechanism due to improper food habits, environmental factors, stagnation of water deposits and toxic substances in the system leading to built up of mucus and phlegm deposits (this is a kapha imbalance) cause respiratory problems.

Benzoin resin essential oil has the power to reduce excess kapha dosha, with its expectorant properties. 1 drop of Benzoin oil with 1 drop of Eucalyptus oil and 1 drop of Niaouli oil in steam inhalation aids in loosening the accumulated phlegm and mucus, relieving congestion and cleansing the breathing passages.

Gently massaging your chest, throat and back with your vaporizing ointment mixed with 2 drops of Benzoin oil and 2 drops of Frankincense oil, following the steam inhalation can aid in relieving cough, cold, congestion, bronchitis, laryngitis, blocked nose, asthma and other respiratory allergies. You can practice breathing exercises like Pranayama and yoga asanas for respiratory illnesses.

3. Drives away depressive feelings: Benzoin resin oil has a gentle, sweet and soothing aroma that tranquilizes the mind with its relaxant, sedative and anti-depressant properties. When inhaled, these remedial properties in the aromatic molecules of this oil pass on to the brain through the nasal passages. This has a positive effect on the limbic system, which is the control center of the brain.

Bryan Miller and Light Miller in their book ‘Ayurveda and Aromatherapy’ say, “Benzoin resin oil is beneficial to an irritated nervous system and can be useful in depression, PMS and stress.”

2 drops of Benzoin resin oil along with 1 drop of Ylang Ylang oil and 1 drop of Orange oil added to your vaporizer, burner or diffuser can assist in stimulating the central nervous system, pacifying the mind, granting mental clarity, controlling anger, treating anxiety, improving blood circulation and instilling the power to control depressive feelings.

According to Ayurveda, among the 7 chakras, Benzoin resin oil affects the root chakra and the solar plexus chakra. Root chakra or sacral chakra is responsible for survival factors like security issues, financial independence and the ability to stand up high. Imbalance of this chakra leads to depression and various other nervous problems.

Solar plexus chakra deals with self-confidence, self-esteem, self-control, self-worth and other personal powers. The failure of the functions of this chakra leads to nervousness, lower self-confidence, inferiority complex, poor memory and digestive disorders.

Benzoin resin oil, with its power to treat the imbalances of the root chakra and solar plexus chakra, brings in self-confidence, trust and the ability to stand tall to beat depression and other negative feelings.

While talking on the relaxing effects of Benzoin resin oil on the emotional aspects of the system, Madame Maury says, ‘this essence creates a kind of euphoria; it interposes a padded zone between us and events’. You can also work out these Yoga asanas for depression and practice meditation.

4. Keeps skin problems at bay: The essential oil of Benzoin has amazing healing for nourishing your skin and helps you look younger and charming. The book on ‘Aromatherapy: Essential oil for vibrant health and beauty’ by Roberta Wilson quotes, “Benzoin was often added to cosmetics to keep skin clear and youthful. People in many different cultures have appreciated its ability to soothe and stimulate the skin.”

Benzoin resin oil has everything in its kitty for dealing with various skin problems ranging from wounds to treatment of scars. The healing properties are mainly due its chemical components including benzyl benzoate, benzoic acid and benzaldehyde.

This oil is a natural antiseptic with germicidal, disinfectant, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and vulnerary properties that aid in healing wounds, cuts, sores, acne, chapped skin, eczema, scars, skin irritation, psoriasis and dermatitis.

Applying the mix of 2 drops of Benzoin resin oil with 1 drop of Lavender oil, 1 drop of Rose oil, 1 drop of Lemon oil, 1 drop of Bergamot oil, 1 drop of Frankincense oil and 4 ml of Sweet almond oil on pimples, wounds, cuts, sores, scars and other infectious skin problems can help in protecting the infected parts from germs and promote quicker healing.

Massaging this blend on your skin especially on dry, cracked, blistered or chapped skin helps repair and rejuvenate the skin cells especially on the elbows, knees and heels. It also helps in maintaining the skin suppleness and softness. Ayurveda recommends drinking ample water every day to retain healthy skin cells.

5. Benefits to the entire system: Apart from these magnificent benefits, the essential oil of Benzoin can bring in enormous other benefits to your complete system. They are the promising effects of this oil that can help in destroying germs in the mouth with its disinfectant properties and tightening the gums with its astringent properties. It also aids in treating digestive disorders with its anti-flatulent and carminative properties. It can serve as an excellent deodorant with its mesmerizing aroma, for your body as well as your home.

Other uses: Benzoin is known for its fixative and preservative values and is used in the perfume industry for these reasons, especially for reducing the dispersal of fragrance elements and essential oils in air. This oil is also utilized as a flavoring agent in baked goods, gelatins, candies, gums, puddings, frozen dairy and beverages including alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. Apart from this, its use in the manufacturing of scented candles, cosmetics and veterinary medications makes it a much prized natural alternative since ages.

Disclaimer: This information is only for the purpose of education and is not intended for diagnosis or prevention of any illnesses. Do not substitute these remedies for any prescription drugs or expert medical advice. We are not medical professionals and this article is shared with the interest of throwing light on the world’s oldest healing system, Ayurveda.

Never use essential oils for internal purposes and make certain that you dilute essential oils in appropriate carrier oils before using it topically. This is mainly because pure and organic essential oils are extremely concentrated liquids and may cause allergic reactions, when used on the skin directly.

Talk with your Ayurvedic professional prior to selecting the right essential oils for your Prakriti or unique individual constitution and state of health. Care should be taken before using essential oils, if you are pregnant or a nursing mom.

Thought for the day:

Nature never did betray the heart that loved her. -William Wordsworth

Suggested Reading:

  1. Fragrance & Wellbeing: Plant Aromatics and Their Influence on the Psyche by Jennifer Peace Rhind
  2. The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: The Complete Guide to the Use of Aromatic Oils In Aromatherapy, Herbalism, Health, and Well Being by Julia Lawless
  3. Ayurveda & Aromatherapy: The Earth Essential Guide to Ancient Wisdom and Modern Healing by Dr. Light Miller, Dr. Bryan Miller
  4. Magical Herbalism: The Secret Craft of the Wise (Llewellyn’s Practical Magick Series) by Scott Cunningham
  5. Making Your Own Incense: Storey Country Wisdom Bulletin A-226 by Tina Sams, Maryanne Schwartz

Reference Links:

  1. Benzoin Resin by Wikipedia
  2. Benzoin from the book, Aromatherapy: Essential Oils for Vibrant Health and Beauty by Roberta Wilson
  3. Benzoin from the book, Ayurveda and Aromatherapy: The Earth Essential Guide to Ancient Wisdom and Modern Healing by Light Miller and Bryan Miller
  4. Health Benefits of Benzoin Essential Oil by Organic Facts
  5. Yoga – A Remedy To Respiratory Illnesses by Dr. Sripriya Krishnan, Department of Psychology, Dr. M.G.R Janaki College of Arts and Science for Women, Chennai

Bergamot Oil



Bergamot essential oil is effective in treating addictions and depression. It is also an excellent aid for digestion and congestion.

Bergamot-bannerBergamot is a wonderful antidepressant and is a boon for people who suffer due to depression and are unable to experience and enjoy the richness of life, which reflects itself in liver congestion and gall bladder obstruction”, says Light Miller and Bryan Miller in their book Ayurveda and Aromatherapy. Botanically called as Citrus bergamia, Bergamot is another famous member of the Citrus family Rutaceae.

The rich, herbaceous and fruity-aromatic essential oil is cold pressed from the rind of the Bergamot fruit, which is also called in Ayurveda with the same name. Bergamot and its essential oil have been recommended in the Ayurvedic treatment for healing skin rashes, sores, acne, fever, obesity, depression, eczema, gingivitis, sore throat, flatulence, loss of appetite, bladder infections and compulsive behaviors.

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Historical uses and importance of Bergamot essential oil:

The name Bergamot is said to have come from the Italian province in Lombardy known as Bergamo. Few sources also state that this name is derived from the Turkish word ‘beg-armudi’, meaning ‘prince of pears’ or ‘prince’s pear’ or ‘the lord’s pear”. Well known to the world as an incredible ingredient of Earl Gray tea, Bergamot and its essential oil have been in the history of various cultures for its medicinal and culinary uses.

Indigenous to the Southeast Asian countries, Bergamot is also claimed as the native fruit from Greece. Later it was introduced to various European countries and is also found growing in Algeria, Morocco, Ivory Coast and Tunisia. About 80% of the world’s total Bergamot production is from the province of Reggio di Calabria in Italy.  It takes about 100 Bergamot oranges to extract 3 ounces of Bergamot essential oil.

The star-like white flowers, feathery leaves and the pear-shaped citrus fruit similar to a cross between a lime and orange have made many countries famous including the Calabria region of Italy. Certain genetic research studies reveal that Bergamot orange is likely to be a hybrid of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and lime (Citrus limetta).

Bergamot is also called as a cross between a grapefruit and an orange tree. These pulpy and juicy fruits are often used in cooking and the most popular dessert with Bergamot in the Middle East countries and America is the Turkish delight. Bergamot juice has been used in the traditional Calabrian medicine for the treatment of malaria and other chronic fevers.

This nutritious fruit and its essential oil were used in the traditional and folklore medicines for treating fever, urinary tract infections, acne, psoriasis, respiratory disorders, cystitis, depression, digestive problems, cold sores, chicken pox and anxiety.

Bergamot peel oil has been a fundamental component in various fragrance formulations. It has also been used as a prime ingredient in the original Eau de Cologne by Farina in Germany in the 18th century. It is also used in the production of marmalades, smokeless tobacco products, digestive liqueur named Liquore al Bergamotto and much more.

Chemical constituents or Gas Chromatography Report (GC) of Bergamot oil:

According to the Gas chromatography report, Bergamot oil constitutes of 19 chemical components that contribute to its fragrance, therapeutic attributes, consistency and quality of this citrus oil. Of which, Limonene contributes to the highest proportion of Bergamot oil constituents with about 39.6% of its total composition.

Just click on:

I trust that this must certainly help you in getting to know the exclusive information about these prime chemical constituents of Bergamot oil.

The table crafted below clearly depicts the unique nature and contributions of these biochemical constituents to the healing magnificence of Bergamot essential oil.

bergamot-gc-2Therapeutic properties of Bergamot essential oil:

The remedial attributes of Bergamot oil are anti-depressant, sedative, antiseptic, analgesic, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, antibiotic, vulnerary, cicatrisant, disinfectant, deodorant, antispasmodic, vermifuge, relaxant, anti-infectious and stimulant.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Bergamot essential oil:

Ayurveda is the oldest healing sciences on earth and it has its origin in India, the country with the oldest historical references. The Indian Hindu mythology has 4 major sacred books also known as Vedas, namely Yajur, Rig, Sama and Atharvaveda. Among these holy books, Ayurveda has been an integral part of Atharvaveda where about 114 verses talk about extensive Ayurvedic remedies and principles to lead a holistic life.

Ayurvedic philosophy was further strengthened by the pioneer Ayurvedic philosophers like Charaka (respected as the ‘Father of medicine’) and Sushruta (celebrated as the ‘Father of surgery’), who wrote Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita respectively. These two Ayurvedic encyclopedias were combined together and represented as Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita.

More than just a traditional healing system, Ayurveda has been held high as a holistic approach with a bundle of values and disciplines for leading a responsible life. Ayurveda trusts on Mother Nature and believes that illness is a result of imbalance between an individual and nature. With this idea, Ayurvedic remedies always stick on to natural medications, believing that nature has a cure for everything within it.

Ayurveda considers sickness as a significant opportunity to explore various aspects that contribute to the illness. It is a known fact that Mother Nature is built up of five vital elements, namely earth, water, fire, air and space. As a part of nature, human beings are also made up of these vital elements called as Panchamahabutas.

According to Ayurveda, every person is a unique creation with a unique individual constitution, which comprises of 3 fundamental biological forces known as doshas. They are vata, pitta and kapha doshas and each of these doshas are a combination of the 5 elements of nature.

Every Ayurvedic treatment begins with the identification of the Prakriti or the unique individual constitution. Every human being has a predominance of one of these doshas, which mainly determines the physical, psychological and behavioral attributes.

Balance between these doshas as per nature’s law indicates healthiness and imbalance due to lifestyle changes, food habits, climatic conditions and undisciplined actions causes sickness. Unique Ayurvedic remedies are prescribed for every individual based on their individual constitution and the root cause of a disease. This aids in diagnosing the illness at the first stage and preventing it in future also.

The prime Ayurvedic medications are herbs, plant essential oils, yoga, meditation, simple physical exercises, prayers, Pranayama and certain Ayurvedic techniques including Abhyanga or Ayurvedic massaging, an Ayurvedic routine, and Panchakarma (the Ayurvedic detox techniques.) With its heating and drying energies, Bergamot essential oil is known to pacify vata and kapha imbalances and augment pitta dosha.

The Ayurvedic health benefits of Bergamot essential oil are:

Bergamot-broucher--info-1. Relieves from fear, anxiety and depression:

Emotional barriers like anxiety, fear, depression and mood fluctuations have a greater impact on your routine and contribute to various adverse effects in your personal as well as professional life.

The reasons for these negative emotions are often inexpressive and at times we realize that we are depressed or put off for no valid reason. Whatever the causes may be, the remedy for such unhealthful feelings should be a proven anti-depressant that aids in uplifting the senses and stimulating positive energy.

Bergamot is one such excellent anti-depressant and a universally accepted mood enhancer. It is for these reasons; this essential oil is often used in Aromatherapy treatments and other Alternative medicinal practices.

Inhaling the magical aroma of this oil by adding 2 to 3 drops of Bergamot oil in vaporizer or diffuser can help in enhancing your mood, instill a feeling of newness and stimulate the secretion of hormones that help in overcoming such difficult moments.

This has been proven in a Korean study that analyzed the effects of Bergamot oil on pulse rate and blood pressure. The study further concluded that inhaling the energizing aroma of Citrus bergamia oil is extremely effective in lessening psychological stress responses, blood pressure in people with hypertension and the level of serum cortisol.

You can start your own home spa just with a small collection of invigorating essential oils like Bergamot. Massaging your system with 5 drops of Bergamot oil, 5 drops of Neroli oil, 5 drops of Cypress oil and 5 drops of Juniper oil along with 20 ml of sweet almond oil is the best way to fortify your senses, augment your blood circulation, calm your muscles, strengthen your mind and gift yourself with absolute tranquility.

Followed by this massage, enhance your energy level by taking a warm bath diluted with 5 drops of Bergamot oil, 5 drops of Ylang Ylang oil and 5 drops of Lavender oil. What’s next? You are done for the day and it’s time to realize that your fear, feelings of insecurity, anxiety, stress, depression and other negative thoughts have vanished just like a mirage in a desert with the sweet, mesmerizing, fruity and enchanting fragrance of Bergamot oil.

2. Supports nervous functions and boosts brain power:

An article by Robert Tisserand just left me amazed, where a student who have been studying about essential oils for 15 years have noticed the improvement in her husband, a stroke patient especially after the use of Bergamot oil on his pillow.

Robert has also added to this experience by stating that “In one rat study, bergamot essential oil inhibited the damage caused by “focal ischemia” (the same type of damage caused by stroke).” He also says that if any essential oil can be helpful in supporting stroke patients, then it would be Bergamot oil. Various researches state that the molecules of the inhaled essential oils reach the brain through the nasal passages and have effectiveness in treating certain neurological diseases.

A 2009 study on the effect of Bergamot essential oil on brain damage in rats, published in the International Review of Neurobiology, established that “Bergamot oil resulted in a significant reduction of tissue death throughout the brain, especially in the medial striatum and the motor cortex areas.” Few other studies have also proved that Bergamot oil decreases neuronal damage.

Adding 2 to 3 drops of Bergamot oil in your diffuser, vaporizer, pillows, handkerchief or a tissue paper placed beside you can help in improving your blood circulation, augmenting the functions of your nervous system, boosting your brain power and keep you healthy and energized.

Bryan Miller and Light Miller in their book ‘Ayurveda and Aromatherapy’ have shared about the miraculous transformation of their teenage son after the use of Bergamot oil. It was said that one of their sons in high school was undergoing severe depression and after Light Miller started adding few drops of Bergamot oil and Lemongrass oil on his pillow, there was an immediate change in his approach and he successfully graduated.

3. Combats and protects the system from harmful microbes:

The essential oil of Bergamot has anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties that can assist in killing existing microbes and preventing the growth of new microbes. A 2009 study published in the Journal of Applied Microbiology concluded that the blend of Bergamot and Orange essential oil tested against two bacterial strains resistant to vancomycin, proved effective in inhibiting bacterial growths. It was also said that these oils are an excellent alternative to chemical-based bactericides.

Few other studies conducted in Italy proved that Bergamot essential oil exhibited antifungal activity against Candida fungus strains and Prototheca, which is a yeast-like alga. Adding 2 to 3 drops of Bergamot oil in warm bathing water can act as a protective shield against bacterial and fungal infections.

You can also mix 2 drops of Bergamot oil with 2 drops of Orange oil and 2 ml of Coconut oil and apply it on acne, candida infections, athlete’s foot, ringworm, and on wounds for preventing it from becoming septic. Being a disinfectant and antiseptic, Bergamot oil aids in healing wounds quickly.

4. Nourishes the skin enormously:

Just like other citrus oils, Bergamot essential oil has enormous amount of Vitamin C and is extremely good for nurturing the skin. The cicatrisant properties of this oil assist in fading away scars, difficult marks left by pimples, boils and wounds.

Massaging your skin with 1 drop of Bergamot oil, 1 drop of Frankincense oil and 1 drop of Lavender oil along with 1.5 ml of olive oil can help in uniform and even distribution of melanin and other pigments in the skin and granting you a gorgeous look and an enriched skin tone.

With its antiseptic, vulnerary and disinfectant properties, Bergamot essential oil is one among the best oils for treating various skin problems like eczema, psoriasis, cold sores, itching, wounds, cracks, skin ulcers and other skin infections.

A Chinese study on Bergamot oil along with Boxthorn oil on the skin and hair growth in mice, concluded that “the extract increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and collagen in the skin, as well as promoting hair growth.”

5. Aids in shedding your extra pounds:

Obesity or weight gain is an imbalance of kapha dosha, which is characterized by the heavy, slow, cool and sluggish attributes. Such vitiations are often treated with the help of essential oils that have warming, stimulating, energizing and heating energies and Bergamot is among those essential oils for reducing excess fat and water deposits in the system with its kapha-reducing attributes, which otherwise leads to overweight or obesity.

The presence of limonene and other therapeutic properties in Bergamot oil promotes the functional capabilities of hypothalamus, which is the satiety center of the brain. By doing this, the feeling of being full or the natural appetite towards food decreases gradually and controls the cravings for food.

Massaging your system with 5 drops of Bergamot oil, 5 drops of Orange oil, 5 drops of Black pepper oil, 5 drops of Lemongrass oil along with 10 ml of coconut oil can help in reducing your weight slowly and steadily.

6. Helps treat addictions and other off-putting habits:

Bergamot is such a sacred oil that can help in attaining holiness and experience the feeling of oneness with the divine power. Inhaling the sanctified aroma of this oil by adding 3 to 4 drops to your diffuser or scented candle can assist in opening your senses, understanding the universe, granting the power to tackle challenges, and having complete control over your mind and body.

It is for these important reasons, Bergamot essential oil is used in treating compulsive habits, addictions like smoking, use of drugs and alcohol. This oil encourages the mind by opening up the heart chakra, which is responsible for appreciating the love for self and for others.

Other health benefits:

Bergamot essential oil is also effective in treating colic, intestinal worms, rheumatic pain, spasms, fever, irregular bowel movements, body odor, anorexia, constipation, urinary infections, hysteria, hair fall, inflammation and parasitic infections.

Disclaimer:

This information is meant only for educational purposes. It is not intended to diagnose or prevent any health conditions and substitute any other prescribed medications or professional medical advice. We are not healthcare experts and this info is only for bringing the importance of Ayurvedic healing practices under limelight.

Do not make use of essential oils internally and ensure that you always dilute essential oils in appropriate carrier oils before using it for topical applications. This is mainly because organic and unadulterated essential oils are very concentrated liquids and may cause allergic reactions if used on the skin directly. Consult your Ayurvedic practitioner/ healthcare expert before choosing the perfect essential oils for your unique individual constitution or prakriti along with your state of health.

The MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) of Bergamot oil is readily available for your enhanced safety and better usage.

Gas Chromatography Report (GC analysis) of Bergamot oil.

Bergamot Essential Oil – Possible Skin Issues:

bergamot-logoGreener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 – Possible Skin Issues:

See => http://www.essentialdepot.com/GreenerLifeDiamond.html

Bergamot oil has photosensitizing effects. This may cause irritation and burning of the skin, when exposed to visible sunlight after the topical application of this oil up to 72 hours of use. The fundamental reason behind this is the reaction of the photoactive chemical constituents that absorbs light, results in toxicity through molecular changes.

Studies establish that the phototoxic chemical constituents in Bergamot oil are Bergaptene, Bergamotene and other furocoumarins. It is also stated that furocoumarins (Psoralens) attribute to carcinogenic, photomutagenic, phototoxic and melanogenic properties of Bergamot oil.

Interaction of these components with the sunlight obtains the ultra violet radiation (UV rays A and B), which might cause negative reaction on the skin, leading to chronic sunburn, skin irritation, hyperpigmentation, development of skin lesions, Berloque dermatitis, alterations in the cellular structure of the skin that may cause skin cancer, following the development of covalent DNA adducts in UV-A or solar light.

However the International Fragrance Association (IFRA) states that the safe dilution level for the application of Bergamot oil on parts exposed to sunlight is 0.4% (or less), which is about 2.4 drops per ounce of any other carrier oils. Furocoumarin or bergaptene-free Bergamot oils are said to reflect comparatively reduced number of skin complaints owing to phototoxicity, than the natural Bergamot oils.

Surprisingly, Furocoumarins are also remedially used in combination with the long-wave ultraviolet light therapy for the treatment of vitiligo, mycosis fungoides and psoriasis. This caution is relevant to direct skin applications like massage oils, balms, creams and lotions and not for cleansing products like shampoos and soaps.

Reference Links Substantiating Possible Skin Issues of Bergamot Oil:

  1. Assessment report on Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, aetheroleum , by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products, European Medicines Agency
  2. In vitro photostability and photosensitizing properties of bergamot oil. Effects of a cinnamate sunscreen by Morlière P, Hüppe G, Averbeck D, Young AR, Santus R, Dubertret L, published in the Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology
  3. Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics by Ikhlas A. Khan and Ehab A. Abourashed.
  4. Bergamot oil by Drugs.com
  5. Perfume Phototoxicity by Francis N. Marzulli and Howard I. Majbach, presented before the New York Chapter, Clifton, N.J.

Thought for the day:

Nature is relentless and unchangeable, and it is indifferent as to whether its hidden reasons and actions are understandable to man or not. -Galileo Galilei

Suggested Reading:

  1. Bergamot Oil: American Pharmaceutical Association Monograph No. 2 by Donald Davis Mossman, Marston Taylor Bogert
  2. HEALING POWERS OF BERGAMOT OIL (The Aromatherapy Professional: Healing with Essential Oils) by KG Stiles
  3. Citrus bergamia: Bergamot and its Derivatives (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles) From CRC Press
  4. Essential Oils For Weight Loss & Top Essential Oil Recipes: Guide to Essential Oil Recipes (Essential Oils Box Set) (Volume 2) by Lindsey P
  5. Bergamot Essential Oil (Aromatherapy Book 48) by Miriam Kinai

Reference Links:

  1. Bergamot Orange by Wikipedia
  2. Bergamot essential oil by Wikipedia
  3. Health Benefits of Bergamot essential oil by Organic Facts
  4. Essential oils, Stroke patients and Bergamot by Robert Tisserand
  5. Prevention of Glutamate Accumulation and Upregulation of Phospho-Akt may Account for Neuroprotection Afforded by Bergamot Essential Oil against Brain Injury Induced by Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat, by Department of Pharmacobiology and Center of Neuropharmacology of Normal and Pathological Neuronal Plasticity, UCADH, University of Calabria, Italy published in PubMed

Castor Oil



‘Don’t judge a book by its cover’ is a celebrated phrase and it promptly applies to Castor oil, the often overlooked oil. Castor is indeed a Master in healing colossal medical conditions including alopecia, wrinkles, ovarian cysts, fibroids, constipation, phantom tumor, piles, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, neuralgia and the list goes on.

Castor-bannerCalled as Gandharvahasta or Eranda taila in Ayurveda, Castor oil is the handiest remedy for alleviating abdominal tumors and uterine fibroids in women and certain other inflammatory conditions.

It is also prescribed for enhancing sperm quality, cognitive functions, memory power, skin health, digestive ability, muscular strength, immunity and in cleansing vagina, semen and the abdomen.

Purchase Castor Oil – Retail – 1 Quart – CLICK HERE

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Therapeutic properties and chemical constituents of Castor oil:

The primary chemical components of Castor oil are ricinoleic acid that contributes to about 85 to 95 per cent of its oil along with other constituents like oleic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, a-linoleic acid, linoleic acid and dihydroxystearic acid.

Anti-inflammatory, emmenagogue, anti-infectious, anti-rheumatic, fungicidal, laxative, immune stimulant, insecticidal, anti-viral, labor inducing, anti-allergic, anthelmintic, rejuvenative, anti-aging, germicidal, disinfectant, and analgesic are the major remedial attributes of pure Castor oil.

Historical uses and importance of Castor oil:

Castor oil is extracted from the attractive and ornamental Castor seeds by cold press method. It is one among the most commonly used oil since the pre-historic times for cleansing the colon, reproductive system and as a powerful detoxifying agent.

Ricinus communis is the botanical name of the Castor plant from which this healing vegetable oil is extracted.

You’d be shocked to know that Castor oil was given as punishment to mischievous children and it was later restricted by the Physicians for using medicines as punishment.

Mussolini is known for the use of Castor oil as a penalty for political dissidents and it was popularly quoted that Mussolini’s supremacy was supported by the ‘bludgeon and castor oil’.

These negative facts about Castor oil vanished gradually after few decades of Mussolini’s death in the Western world and with its enormous medical benefits that had proven positive effects.

The ancient Ayurvedic healing records the use of Eranda or Castor oil since 2000 BC as a traditional analgesic, purgative and laxative for treating arthritis, constipation and infestation of worms. It has also been used in lamps.

Castor oil is the hero in the Asian and African provinces and was regarded as a panacea for various infectious diseases and chronic health conditions.

Ayurveda and other alternative medicinal practices prescribe Castor oil as an effective remedy for rheumatism, lumbago, hair fall, wrinkles, cysts, warts, menstrual discomforts, constipation, yeast infections, acne, ringworm, arthritis and inflammatory nerves.

Castor oil has been listed as ‘Generally recognized as safe and effective’ (GRASE) by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States as an over-the-counter laxative.

Kolliphor EL is one among the most common Castor oil derivative that is included in various modern drugs as follows:

“Xenaderm ointment, a topical treatment for skin ulcers, is a combination of Balsam of Peru, castor oil, and trypsin.

Paclitaxel, a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy.

Miconazole, an antifungal agent.

Nelfinavir mesylate, an HIV protease inhibitor.”

Even today, Castor oil is used as a natural emollient and moisturizer in numerous soaps, shampoos and various other cosmetics manufacturing.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Castor oil:

Castor oil is an excellent detoxifying, cleansing, nourishing and pacifying oil for the mind, body and spirit, especially when used in Abhyanga or Ayurvedic massage. Abhyanga is an ancient art of repairing and rejuvenating the tensed muscles and the system with the use of therapeutic Ayurvedic oils.

Charaka, the most celebrated Ayurvedic philosopher quotes massaging as:

The body of one who uses oil massage regularly does not become affected much even if subjected to accidental injuries, or strenuous work. By using oil massage daily, a person is endowed with pleasant touch, trimmed body parts and becomes strong, charming and least affected by old age.”

Charaka Samhita Vol. 1, V: 88-89.

Many Ayurvedic experts and philosophers beckon Castor oil as ‘the only oil that eliminates ama (toxic remains in the system mainly due to improper digestion) and crammed mala (faeces) and kapha vitiation (stagnation of water deposits).’ Castor oil works best when it is employed with heat on the affected parts of the body.

Often rated as the best oil for treating vata imbalances, Castor oil has the potent to treat chronic constipation, Gastro-intestinal congestion, benign tumors, uterine fibroids, infections, cysts, dry skin conditions, matured skin, brittle hair, discards morbid vata, stiff joints, gout and bloating.

Castor oil pacifies vata and kapha dosha in excess and enhances pitta energy. It augments circulation with its warm attributes, thus encouraging the movement of lymph.

Being the oldest of all remedial sciences on earth, Ayurveda is the real inspiration and the root for all other medical systems on earth. This includes Siddha, Homeopathy, TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine), Unani, Aromatherapy, Acupressure and Chiropractic.

Ayurveda abides by a ‘cause and effect’ technology that sticks to the popular adage, “There’s no smoke without fire.”

Any health condition, according to Ayurveda does not occur instantly and Ayurveda believes that there is a strong underlying root cause behind every illness. The mind, body and the spirit are interconnected with each other and imbalance of any of these factors would affect the others.

Ayurvedic healing endeavors to identify the root cause of a sickness and treat it for complete cure and prevention, instead of treating its symptoms that might be of temporary relief.

Ayurveda states that good state of health is a blend of emotional, physical and spiritual wellness of an individual. It aims at self-realization and attaining Divinity through purity along with hale and heartiness.

Thus, Acharya Charaka, the renowned Ayurvedic Guru and the author of Charaka Samhita, the first Ayurvedic encyclopedia says The three – body, psyche, and soul – act as a tripod. The world stands upon them, and within them, the world abides.”

Every person in this universe is a unique individual with a distinct individual constitution known as Prakriti. This is a combination of three doshas, namely vata, pitta and kapha.

World is made up of five fundamental elements called as Panchamahabhutas (earth, air, fire, space and earth.) Doshic energies are an arrangement of these five vital forces.

All the human beings have a predominance of any one dosha, which decides the physical, mental, spiritual and behavioral attributes.

Ayurveda strives to strike absolute balance between these doshas and treat the unevenness with Nature as imbalance with the natural buoyancy is often the beginning of any medical condition.

The most common Ayurvedic medications are herbs and herbal medicines in the form of powder, syrup and paste; Ayurvedic essential oils, Panchakarma or the practice of Ayurvedic detoxification, Pranayama or conscious breathing, Abhyanga or Ayurvedic massaging, yoga, Ayurvedic routine or Dinacharya, simple physical exercises, prayers and meditation.

The most effective but the less known Ayurvedic health benefits of Castor oil are:Castor-Oil1. Promising natural remedy for treating uterine fibroids and hormonal imbalances:

Uterine fibroids are one among the most common problems in women, often present without any symptoms and in certain cases it causes extreme menstrual pain, pain in the pelvic area, frequent urination and fertility problems as well depending upon its location in the inner wall of the uterus.

The actual reason for fibroids in the uterus is not known but is generally stated as a change in the hormonal levels of women in the reproductive age. Fibroids tend to shrink with age as the level of estrogen reduces gradually.

Fibroids are benign tumors that require no treatment unless it causes severe pain or fertility problems. The most intricate solution for treating uterine fibroids is hysterectomy or removal of uterus.

Gulma is the Ayurvedic term for fibroids and other phantom tumors. Ayurveda recommends the use of warm Castor oil in massage and as a medicinal intake.

Castor oil is called as Gulma hara, which means that the best remedy for discarding tumors present in the abdominal area.

Abdominal tumors are often caused due to the vitiation of vata and kapha dosha. Castor oil is termed as one among the best natural medication for eliminating excess vata and kapha dosha, thus enhancing circulation and reducing the size and symptoms of fibroids, cysts and other abdominal tumors.

Vata dosha is the air and space energy that rush through the system in a jiffy and is prevalently the cause behind the imbalance of other two doshas. Vata doshas rules circulation and movement of the body and vitiated vata might end up in causing anxiety, dry skin, bloating, muscular stiffness, dehydration, improper blood circulation, insomnia and more.

This Sanskrit verse says it right, “THE LION OF CASTOR OIL ALONE CAN KILL THE MADDENED ELEPHANT OF ‘VATA’ AS IT STAMPEDES THROUGH THE BODY.”

Castor oil is by far considered as the only oil that has the ability to eliminate ama or toxic remains, kapha imbalance (surplus fluid deposits) and congested mala (faeces). When used externally with heat, Castor oil is effective in decreasing the growth of excess tissues, cysts and tumors.

The rich therapeutic oil extracted from the seeds of the Castor plant is a promising alternative for treating Yoni Roga, which means the disorders of the genital tract in women and Udara, meaning abdominal diseases.

It is also termed as Adhobhaga Doshahara, which means its efficacy in flushing out doshic vitiations from the lower part of the system.

Massage your lower abdomen with 5 ml of warm Castor oil and cover it with a flannel cloth, followed by a plastic wrap. Use a heating pad or hot water bottle over the wrap and relax in a comfortable position for about 30 minutes to 1 hour.

Castor oil has deep penetrating properties, thus it enters the bloodstream quickly and passes on its therapeutic properties at ease. This power-packed massage therapy can help one in breaking up scar tissues, if any, eliminates uterus congestion, reduces and confiscates fibroids, cysts and other benign tumors in the abdominal area (uterus and ovary).

It works by increasing the blood circulation in the abdominal region and thus breaks down the clogged mass of fibroids, cysts and tumors.

Dysmennorhea or painful menses, delayed or obstructed menstruation are treated with the natural emmenagogue properties of Castor oil, which is attributed to the presence of ricinoleic acid.

Remember not to use Castor oil during menstruation as it might increase the flow of menses and the best time to use is before the onset of your periods.

Castor oil is an excellent cleansing remedy for the male and female reproductive system. Ayurveda calls Castor oil as Yoni vishodhana, medication for vaginal cleansing and as Shukra vishodhana, remedy for enhancing the quality of semen and purifying it.

Ayurveda recommends newly married couples to take Castor oil as an aid to purify the mind, body and spirit before giving birth to a new soul on earth. The oil of Castor is also used for treating Shukra gada or seminal problems.

2. Nourishes and supports skin health:

Are you into Soap making business? Then just choose Castor oil with your eyes closed and you’d definitely order bulk of Castor oil cans if you get to know the Ayurvedic benefits of it.

Castor oil is a promising Ayurvedic remedy for healing skin disorders (Kushtapaha); an excellent invigorating and anti-aging agent (Vaya sthapana); enhances the natural glow of your skin (Kantikara); boosts skin health (Twachya); enters even through the minute channels of the skin and repairs the damaged skin cells (Teekshna and Sookshma).

The most impressive use of Castor oil is its effectiveness in treating wrinkles, fine lines, crow’s foot, spots and other symptoms of aging. This quality is attributed to its emollient benefits that influence the natural production of elastin and collagen, the secret agents of supple skin.

Massaging your skin with 4 ml of Castor oil blended with 1 ml of Jojoba oil can assist in revitalizing and revivifying the skin surface.

Castor oil can also be helpful in treating psoriasis, ringworm, eczema, stretch marks, skin inflammation, boils, acne, abrasions, corns, cysts and dry skin conditions.

3. Fortifies and thickens your hair by enriching the roots:

Hair and skin are the most promising indicators of a ‘Healthy You’. Loss of hair, dandruff, dry, rough and gray hairs do not always occur because of environmental nuances. There are much more intense reasons behind the illness of your hair and scalp.

Stress, worries, anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, panic attacks and of course unhealthy diet and lifestyle practices contribute to the detrimental state of your hair.

Castor oil is an incredible natural asset for addressing most of your hair problems and has even been proven to influence the growth of hair on your eyebrows.

Unclogging the blocked pores, strengthening the hair follicles, nourishing the scalp conditions, moisturizing the hair and scalp and motivating the natural growth of hair is all that the magical touch of Castor oil can spell upon you.

Being a traditional remedy for addressing various hair conditions, Castor oil is also recommended in the United States of America as an economical substitute for the most expensive serums for the growth of hair and eyebrows.

To start with, blend 10 ml of Castor oil with 2 drops of Lime oil and 5 drops of Rosemary oil and heat it slightly. Massage this warm blend on your scalp and leave it for about an hour. Shampoo your hair with a mild herbal shampoo for best results.

Continue this enriching massage twice a week for about 3 months for repairing your hair damages and fostering the natural shine and luster of your bouncy locks.

Ayurveda beckons Castor oil as Keshya for its efficiency in encouraging hair growth and enriching the hair follicles.

The presence of Vitamin E, ricinoleic acid and other Omega-9 and Omega-6 fatty acids help in influencing good circulation of blood in the scalp, seal the moisture in the hair and scalp, treat split ends and breakage of hair.

The antimicrobial, antiviral and antifungal properties of Castor oil also assist in treating itchy scalp conditions, dandruff and other infections of the scalp.

4. Relieves pain, inflammation and rheumatic conditions:

Rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis are the children of the toxic elements left in the system, especially amassed in the hands, legs and joints. This results in pain, inflammation, improper blood circulation, redness, soreness and irritation in the muscles and joints.

Castor oil is a winning rescuer from amavat (inflexibility and pain in joints) and rheumatic conditions with its wonderful effect to augment blood circulation, relieve pain, reduce swelling and treat stiffness in joints.

With its easily penetrating quality, Castor oil pierces into the bloodstream and starts working instantly on the affected parts. Castor oil is called as Shulaghnam for its analgesic values and is also known as Guhya shoola and Prushta shoola for supporting the treatment of lower back pain.

It’s also been proven effectual in the treatment of Shotha (inflammation and swelling) and Katigraha (stiffness in the lower back).

Massaging the painful parts with 3 ml of warm Castor oil blended with 2 drops of Ginger oil can help in eliminating the toxic wastes and excess fluid deposits stagnated in the system through urine and metabolic wastes.

It can also be helpful in alleviating pain, soothing the tensed muscles, calming the nerves and instilling complete relief.

5. Expels toxic remains and excellent cleanser of the digestive tract:

Ama or toxic remains in the body are mainly due to indigestion, irregular diet and other lifestyle practices. Ayurveda states that build up of noxious substances in the system might pave way to the rise of chronic and even fatal diseases.

As read already, Castor is one among the best Ayurvedic remedy for eliminating toxic (ama) remains, excess fluid, salt, uric acid and fat deposits in the body.

Castor oil is a grandmother’s remedy for eliminating worms, parasites and toxic substances in the body, especially the digestive system. Pure Castor oil is ingested during the night and is trusted to stimulate the bowel movements and flush out the toxic waste through faeces in the morning.

Gas (anaha), bloating (Vatodara), gout (Vatashonita), chronic constipation (Vid bandha), prostitis (Ashtila), and heaviness are often treated with Castor oil, either as a tonic or massage oil.

Deepana is another medicinal term for Castor oil for its ability to enhance digestive power and is a promising natural laxative. For its anthelmintic properties that aids in discarding worms, parasites and other pathogens in the body, Castor oil is also known as Krimighnam.

Blend 2 drops of Peppermint oil with 3 ml of Castor oil and massage on the abdominal area for alleviating digestive discomforts.

Other health benefits:

In general, Castor oil is said to contribute to varied health benefits of the system including its power to nurture immunity or the power to resist against diseases (Balakara); improve cognitive and memory functions (Medhakara and Smrutikara); and augment general health and heartiness (Arogyakara).

Disclaimer:

This article is only for the purpose of education and is not destined to treat, prevent or diagnose any health conditions. It is not meant for substituting any prescription medicines or the advice of a medical professional. We, at Essential Depot are not healthcare experts and this information is shared only for thinning out the phenomenal healing of Ayurveda, the oldest of all medical sciences on earth.

All essential oils are recommended topical use only and not for ingestion. This is mainly because 100 per cent pure and organic oils are concentrated substances and may cause allergic reactions.

Take special care when using essential oils on pregnant or nursing women, children and people with chronic illnesses. Speak with your Ayurvedic professional or General practitioner before choosing the suitable oils for your unique individual constitution or Prakriti and the state of health or Vikruti. A patch test on your skin before enjoying the enormous benefits of Ayurvedic essential oils is recommended.

Thought for the day:

Wherever the art of medicine is loved, there is also a love of humanity.
Hippocrates

Suggested Reading:

  1. Castor Oil Pack Therapy: Application & Instruction by ND, Bruce Baar MS
  2. Castor Oil and Rosemary Oil for Hair Growth: The Secret to Re-growing Hair and Preventing Hair Loss Naturally by Mark Calhoun
  3. Castor Oil: How To Grow Longer Hair, Get Rid Of Scars, Remove Wrinkles, And Other Health And Beauty Recipes (Homemade Body Care Book 4) by Kathy Aquino
  4. The 3 Essential Oils: Olive Oil, Coconut Oil and Castor Oil by Cat McEwan
  5. Castor Oil (Carrier Oils Book 7) by Miriam Kinai

Reference Links:

  1. Ricinus communis by Wikipedia
  2. Transdermal Absorption of Castor Oil by Douglas G. Richards, Ph.D., David L. McMillin, M.A., Eric A. Mein, M.D., and Carl D. Nelson, D.C. published in the Meridian Institute.
  3. Final report on the safety assessment of Ricinus communis (Castor seed oil), published in the International Journal of Toxicology
  4. Benefits of Castor oil by MedIndia
  5. Health benefits of Castor oil by Times of India