Cardamom Oil



Cardamom, the ‘Queen of spices’, stimulates the heart and mind and brings in enormous joy and clarity of thoughts. It has been in imperial use since the primordial times for its mammoth healing benefits that serve as a phenomenal tonic, expectorant, cephalic, antispasmodic, stimulant and as a promising digestive agent.

Cardamom-bannerBotanically named as Elettaria Cardamomum, Cardamom is well identified by its small seed pods with an outer shell enclosing the small black seeds from which its essential oil is extracted by steam distillation.

Lovingly called as Ela and Truti in Sanskrit, Cardamom has been widely used in Ayurveda for its aromatic and medicinal attributes in the treatment of impotence, bronchitis, indigestion, hoarse voice, vomiting, asthma, blood pressure, poor absorption, cold, cough, bad breath, loss of taste, nervous digestive upset and mood fluctuations.

As an invigorating agent for the central nervous system, Cardamom essential oil induces a sense of harmony and supports absolute fitness.

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Historical uses and importance of Cardamom and its essential oil:

Owing its origin to the Asian countries such as India, Bhutan, Nepal and Pakistan, Cardamom is a universal spice and is a member of the powerful Ginger family, Zingiberaceae. Rich in nutritional and healing properties, Cardamomis the third most expensive spice in the world standing next to saffron and vanilla.

It is crowned as a medicinal herb in the Indian Ayurvedic healing methodology, dating back to 4th century B.C; Cardamom has carved its name in Charaka Samhita – the Ayurvedic encyclopedia, for its application in the preparation of various medicaments.

Cardamom was an important part of the Roman and Greek trade and has numerous historical accolades. Believed to have been grown in the hanging gardens of Babylon, Cardamom has been mentioned in the works of Dioscorides, Theophrastus and even in the ancient Indian sacred books known as Vedas.

Arabic medicine portrays Cardamom seeds as the best aphrodisiac and mood elevator while the Chinese medicine predominantly used Cardamom for intestinal infections, stomachic problems, gastrointestinal disorders, constipation and dysentery.

In folklore medicine, digestive disorders were treated with a herbal drink made by boiling roasted Cardamom seeds along with betel nuts. Being an active ingredient in cough drops, Cardamom was administered nasally along with camphor and neem to treat cold. It is a natural mouth freshener.

Cardamom is an antidote to caffeine and it detoxifies the caffeine in coffee and is used in making tea to relieve the symptoms of headache and stress and these seeds were taken along with honey to improve the eyesight.

The traditional Indians used Cardamom as an antidote for poisonous bites like scorpion stings and venomous snake bites. These seeds and its oil were also used for treating respiratory ailments, gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation of the eyelids and oral infections.

Being transported from East to Europe, Cardamom was highly valued as a tonic and as an aphrodisiac agent, which was used in love potions. The western world uses Cardamom for its unique aroma and sedative properties.

Chemical constituents and therapeutic properties of Cardamom essential oil:

Consisting a majority of monoterpenes with the predominant one being 1, 8-cineole, Cardamom essential oil also comprises of esters, alcohols and sesquiterpenes that includes limonene oxide, α-terpinene, neryl acetate, formic acid, α-pinene, camphene, caryophyllene oxide, nerolidol, β-pinene, sabinene, citronellal, α-terpineol, cis-ocimene, geranyl acetate, linalool, isomenthol, 4-terpineol, nerol, thymol, α-terpinyl acetate, α-guaiene, β-myrcene.

The therapeutic properties of Cardamom essential oil are carminative, digestive, antiseptic, stimulant, tonic, antispasmodic, cephalic, diuretic, stomachic, analgesic, expectorant, antifungal, astringent, antibacterial, aromatic, diaphoretic, antioxidant, cooling, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-hypertensive and aphrodisiac. 

Ayurvedic health benefits of Cardamom essential oil:

Ayurveda is a virtuous medical discipline that believes that every being on earth is a part of Mother Nature and it states that one’s wellness indicates absolute balance with nature and sickness symbolizes imbalance with nature. Ayurveda is a 5,000 year old healing system that has its medicinal practices recorded in Atharvana Veda, one among the 4 sacred books of India, where about 114 verses in this book talk about various illnesses and their Ayurvedic remedies.

Charaka, the father of medicine and Sushruta, the father of surgery were the most famous Ayurvedic physicians and they wrote the Ayurvedic texts namely Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. Charaka says “The three – body, psyche, and soul – act as a tripod. The world stands upon them, and within them, the world abides.” According to Ayurveda, human body is a temple where the spirit lives in. It strongly recommends on keeping the body, mind and spirit pure and tranquil just like maintaining a place of worship.

Ayurveda is called as the mother of all the other healing sciences on earth and is a holistic system that states ‘perfect health is being fit physically, mentally, emotionally and spiritually.’

Every individual is approached in a unique manner even if they are affected by the same illness because Ayurvedic philosophy recognizes every human being as a distinct part of nature with a unique individual constitution, which comprises of three dynamic biological energies known as doshas. They are vata, kapha and pitta.

Ayurvedic doshas administer various functions, where vata governs the functions of the circulatory system, nervous system and respiratory system, kapha is responsible for the activities of the reproductive system, movement of fluids in the body, physical build up and sustenance and pitta dosha controls the body temperature and metabolic functions.

Every individual has a predominance of any one these doshas, which decides one’s figure, personality, mental attributes and behavioral patterns. Balance between these doshas indicates health and imbalance of these biological energies pave way to diseases. Ayurvedic remedies focus on correcting the dosha imbalances with the help of herbs, essential oils, simple physical exercises, Ayurvedic routine, yoga, prayers, meditation and Pranayama.

Ayurveda prescribes Cardamom to treat cardiovascular problems, bronchial disorders and digestive problems. Light Miller and Bryan Miller in their book Ayurveda and Aromatherapy say “Cardamom is good for treating high vata, as it kindles Agni or digestive fire and removes excess kapha from the stomach and lungs.

Its quality is sattvic and it is particularly good for opening and soothing the flow of the pranas in the body”.

Let’s have a look at the Ayurvedic health benefits of Cardamom essential oil.

Cardamom-broucher1. Combats against infections with strong anti-microbial properties:

With the increase in the food borne diseases caused by pathogens such as bacteria, there is an increase in the urge for searching natural antibacterial agents with maximum benefits and minimum side effects.

With monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and flavonoids, Cardamom essential oil possesses strong antimicrobial activity inhibiting the growth of numerous harmful micro organisms that cause spoilage of food. Many researches on the anti-microbial attribute of Cardamom essential oil states that it shows significant inhibitory activity against various common pathogens when compared to Fluconazole and tetracycline.

The aqueous and the methanolic extracts of Cardamom essential oil inhibited the growth of gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus cereus.

It has been proved effective to use the essential oil of Elettaria Cardamomum in treating various infectious ailments caused by the harmful pathogens. This attribute is also applied in preserving the food items, thus proving greatly beneficial to the manufacturers of stored food products.

Terpinen-4-ol contributes to the effective antifungal attribute of Cardamom essential oil making it active against various infectious fungi that include Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, A.flavus and A.fumigatus, thus proving effectual in treating yeast infections and urinary tract infections.

It has been proved that Cardamom essential oil results in yielding satisfactory results in inhibiting the growth of bacteria, mold, fungus and viruses when compared to the other antifungal pharmaceuticals. 2 drops of Cardamom essential oil added to warm bathing water or 2 drops of this oil mixed with 2 drops of Neroli oil and 2 ml of coconut oil can be applied on the affected parts for quick relief.

2. Rich source of antioxidant to fight against cancer:

Free radicals are always hazardous in a number of ways, leading to premature aging and even some fatal diseases including cancer. With natural phyto-chemicals such as di-indolylmethane and Indole-3-carbinol, Cardamom essential oil helps in augmenting the levels of glutathione, a natural antioxidant found in human body. Moreover it helps in combating against cancers responding to the hormone regulation such as breast, ovarian and prostate cancer.

It possesses chemo-preventive quality, resulting in a significant reduction in the weight and diameter of the tumor, tumor yield, cumulative number of papillomas and the values of tumor incidence and considerable elevation in the level of glutathione in mice with chemically induced skin carcinogenesis serving as the best anti-tumor and anti-cancer agent.

In addition to the phyto-nutrients, Cardamom essential oil is rich in vitamins B, C, protein and iron that make it a complete scavenger of free radicals resisting the aging process right from the cellular level and enhances the immunity.

It possesses anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anticancer qualities, helping in significantly reducing the production of nitric oxide by macrophages that act as one of the primary inflammatory mediators. Moreover, it enhances the cytotoxic activity of the natural killer cells found in the human body, building up a preventive shield against cancer.

Few valuable sources also state the positive outcome on using Cardamom essential oil in suppressing the cell proliferation in Swiss albino mice with chemical induced colon carcinogenesis proving its efficacy in treating colorectal cancer. Mix 2 drops of Cardamom essential oil with 2 drops of Orange oil along with 2ml of jojoba oil and massage it gently on wrinkles and other aging symptoms caused due to free radicals.

You can also massage your system with 5 drops of Cardamom oil along with 5 drops of Cedarwood oil blended with 5 ml of Olive oil to combat free radicals, reduce the size and severity of existing malignant tumors and invigorate the cellular structure.

3. Natural insect repellent:

With high concentrations of monoterpenes such as cineol and terpineol, Cardamom essential oil serves as an effective natural repellent for insects and pests. As per a 2011 research article, this oil was found to possess strong repellent, ovicidal, biocidal and anti-feeding attributes against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculates and the flour moth, Ephestia Kuehniella, all of which target the stored products.

Moreover Cardamom essential oil is highly toxic to the adults of T.castaneum and Sitophilus zeamais, which attack the food grains such as wheat. It restrains the egg hatching and the larval stage of T.castaneum proving its ovicidal attribute. This volatile oil also actively prevents the oviposition of C.maculates in mung seeds. Few notable sources mention the acaricidal effect of Cardamom oil with 100% mortality rate against Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite.

The power of Cardamom essential oil in suppressing the development of adults from the treated eggs remains as the major factor behind its insecticidal quality. Cardamom essential oil serves as a natural source of insect repellent devoid of hazardous side effects, used in protecting the food grains stored in enclosed rooms, storage bins etc.

4. Alleviates stomachic and gastro-intestinal disorders:

Cardamom essential oil is a natural digestive aid since antiquity. It acts as an excellent appetizer, eminent stomachic agent during meal and a great mouth freshener after meal. A herbal tea made of Cardamom, ginger and fennel serves as a natural digestive tonic and a great cure for indigestion.

As an excellent digestive enhancer of all types of food, it produces an energizing effect in the body helping in the stimulation and habitual excretion of gastric juices and other acids in the stomach that aids in alleviating heartburn by balancing the acid level. Cardamom essential oil kills the bacteria in the mouth and prevents one from bad breath and treats the symptoms of flatulence and gastric disturbances.

With its antispasmodic attribute, it relives you from hiccups and alleviates the intestinal cramps caused due to involuntary muscle spasms. With natural phyto-nutrients, it helps in overcoming the effect of overeating and aids you in fighting against the outcomes of gluten intolerance benefiting those with celiac disease. Cardamom essential oil showed significant results in inhibiting the gastric lesions induced by aspirin and ethanol in rats. It protects the mucus wall and aids in maintaining normal levels of gastric acid.

2 drops of Cardamom oil added to a cup of warm water can be used as a gargle especially in the morning or before going to bed or even after heavy meals to completely kill microbes in the mouth and grant refreshing breath. 2 drops of Cardamom oil along with 2 drops of Ginger oil mixed with 2 ml of sesame oil can be massaged on your abdomen for getting rid of gastrointestinal problems, diarrhea, nausea, indigestion, headache, nervous digestive upsets, morning sickness, colic and vomiting.

5. Naturally detoxifies the body:

Cardamom essential oil is an effective diuretic and detoxifier that protects human beings from the ill effects of toxin accumulation in the entity resulting to various simple and serious impacts such as premature aging, rheumatism, improper functioning of the organs and some fatal ailments like cancer.

With its natural antioxidants, monoterpenes and flavonoids, this oil is an eminent diuretic helping in releasing the excess water deposits in the body through sweat and urine. It promotes the process of urination and increases the urine output creating a channel to get rid of toxins such as water, fat, acids, calcium deposits, urea and sometimes stones to build a combative cover against obesity due to water stagnation and its risk factors such as hypertension, blood pressure and cardiovascular disorders.

Cardamom detoxifies the caffeine element in coffee and this combination of Cardamom and coffee is called as ‘gavah’ and is of renowned importance in the Arabian culture, where it is considered as a symbol of warmth and generosity. This aromatic oil warms up the body, aids in opening the sweat pores and maintaining the normal body temperature.

The removal of excess toxins with ease and comfort poses fewer burdens on the vital organs such as kidney and liver. It leads to perspiration and its high fiber content along with the detoxifying quality helps in significantly lowering the blood pressure.

Blend 5 drops of Cardamom oil with 5 drops of Jatamansi oil along with 5 ml of coconut oil and gently massage your system, followed by a warm bath diluted with 2 drops of Cardamom oil for eliminating the toxic substances in the body, reducing uterus inflammation, combating the infections in the urinary tract, strengthening the bladder in addition to treating involuntary urination and bedwetting in children and elderly people.

6. Relieves respiratory problems:

Cardamom essential oil works wonders in regulating the blood circulation and rejuvenating the entire system. Traditional healing therapies used Cardamom essential oil in the treatment of bronchitis, whooping cough and asthma for it is known to improve blood circulation in the lungs.

As a natural expectorant with balsamic aroma, it helps in breaking up even the heavy deposits of mucus and phlegm and relieves you from congestion in the lungs and sinuses.

Just inhaling the vapors of Cardamom oil by adding 3 drops of this oil in steam inhalation can alleviate the symptoms of congestion, cold, chest infections, flu, chronic cough and headache. 1 drop of Cardamom oil along with 1 drop of Cinnamon oil added to gargle relieves you instantly from sore throat and pharyngitis.

The anti-mucus action of this oil helps in rejuvenating the spleen and makes it an active component of medicaments for congestion. With this property, Cardamom pods are often included in milk products for its ability to counteract the mucus forming attribute of milk.

7. Lessens tension:

Cardamom oil has cineole, which is a central nervous stimulant aids in soothing the nervous system, calming down the muscles, alleviating tension and instilling mental peace and clarity. Just adding 4 drops of Cardamom oil to the bathtub relieves you from stress, depression and combat body aches and discomfort. It enhances the potency of the nerves and relieves you from physical and emotional discomforts thus rejuvenating the inner spirit and inducing a serene state of mind by lifting up the spirits.

Cardamom essential oil has been proved as an anti-depressant agent owing to its sedative effect in humans. With limonene as a mild tranquilizer, it diverts the mind and helps one to quit the addictions to awful habits such as tobacco chewing, alcohol and smoking.

Cardamom essential oil has gained global recognition for its sweet aroma and positive effects on the brain and the nervous system. Inhaling the aroma of 1 drop of Cardamom oil, 1 drop of Ylang Ylang oil and 1 drop of Neroli oil added to diffuser or vaporizer can assist in relieving one from anxiety, fear, nervous wreck down and lethargy. It is highly recommended to students for its potent to increase the concentration and improve intellectual power.

8. Rich source of nutrition for the total system:

With its enormous healing attributes, Cardamom essential oil is a valuable source of iron, manganese, calcium, potassium, magnesium, niacin, riboflavin and Vitamin C. All these vital components help in boosting up the overall health of a person.

It boosts up the immune system, helps in the generation of red blood corpuscles, and initiates the cellular energy metabolism, aids in maintaining the cardiovascular health and in promoting healthy heart rate, blood pressure and fluid levels in the body. Moreover, its rich nutrients contribute in maintaining healthy skin and hair.

2 drops of Cardamom oil along with 2 drops of Lavender oil added to your bath daily can aid in maintaining healthy skin. The antiseptic and antimicrobial properties cleanse the skin naturally and help in treating various skin infections. It rejuvenates the skin, opens up the pores and prevents the onset of acne and pimples.

Other health benefits of Cardamom essential oil:

Cardamom essential oil acts as a natural oral aid treating mouth ulcers, halitosis, oral infections of teeth and gums and toothaches. Vocalists use Cardamom oil to tone up their voice. This oil can keep you away from scalp infections, dandruff and maintain a healthy, lustrous hair.

It can act as a peroxide booster along with honey and Cinnamon in distilled water to lighten the skin without any side effects. It prevents platelet aggregation and aids in preventing blood clots that can be dangerous in certain cases. Cardamom oil is also used as an aphrodisiac alongside pepper, onion and nutmeg to alleviate impotence and other sexual concerns.

Disclaimer:

This is only for information and educational purposes and is not intended to treat, diagnose or prevent any health condition or replace with any prescribed medications or professional medical advice. We are not healthcare professionals and this data is shared only with the interest of spreading the traditional values and curative benefits of Ayurveda, the mother of all healing sciences on earth.

Never ingest essential oils and do remember to dilute them with appropriate carrier oil before using it on the skin externally as pure and organic essential oils are highly concentrated liquids and might have a tendency to cause allergies if used directly on the skin. Make sure that you consult your Ayurvedic practitioner/healthcare expert before choosing the correct essential oil for your medical condition and unique individual constitution.

Thought for the day:

Every particular in nature, a leaf, a drop, a crystal, a moment of time is related to the whole, and partakes of the perfection of the whole.

-Ralph Waldo Emerson

Suggested Reading:

  1. The Magic of Cardamoms For Cooking and Health (Health Learning Series) by John Davidson, Dueep J. Singh
  2. Aushadh Rahasya: The Secret of Ayurvedic Herbs and Disorders of the Mind by Rodney Lingham
  3. Cardamom: The Genus Elettaria (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles) from CRC Press
  4. Cardamom Tea, A Secret to Longevity (Chinese Edition) by shu xin cheng
  5. Living Well With Cancer by Katen Moore, Libby Schmais

Reference Links:

  1. Cardamom by Wikipedia
  2. Fumigant toxicity and oviposition deterrency of the essential oil from Elettaria Cardamomum, against three stored-product insects published in PubMed.
  3. The In Vitro evaluation of antibacterial potential of dry fruit extracts of Elettaria Cardamomum published in PubMed.
  4. A 2010 research article on the in vitro investigation of the potential immunomodulatory and anti-cancer activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and Cardamom (Elettaria Cardamomum)

Celery Seed Oil



‘Quick acting’ is the meaning of the word Celeri, the Latin origin of the name Celery. Well identified as one of the prime ingredient of the Holy Trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine, Celery is a renowned herb known to the Chinese as early as the 5th century and was used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine earlier than that.

Celery-seed-oil-bannerBelonging to the Umbelliferae plant family, it is botanically called as Apium graveolens. Celery seed oil is obtained from the dried Celery seeds by the steam distillation method.

Called as Ajamoda in Ayurveda, Celery seed have been used for thousands of years in treating neurological afflictions, poor digestion, influenza, water retention, high blood pressure, insomnia, arthritis, rheumatism, cold, flu, bronchitis, hepatitis, gout, stone formation in gall bladder or kidneys, asthma, arthritis, dizziness and other ailments related to spleen and liver.

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Historical uses and importance of Celery Seed and its essential oil:

Well known to the contemporary world as a vegetable, Celery owes its nativity to the lowland of Italy and it gradually spread to other parts of the world like Egypt, Ethiopia, Algeria and India. It is often referred to its use in the New Kingdom of Egypt around 1000 B.C.

Celery was held high as a sacred herb during the Greek era and was used in crowns by the athletes. Few sources state that Celery leaves were found in the garland of the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun who died in 1323 BC. It is also mentioned in numerous classical works, one being Homer’s Iliad where the horses of the Myrmidons were said to graze on the wild Celery in Troy.

Aulus Cornelius Celsus, the eminent Roman encyclopaedist well known for his invaluable work in the field of medicine has mentioned about the use of Celery seeds in pills for relieving pain, in his work De Medicina, which is the only existing section of the whole of encyclopedia. Celery seeds were used as a traditional remedy by Hippocrates and was globally used as an effective diuretic in treating cold, arthritis, flu and digestive disorders.

The German Commission E prescribes Celery for treating gout, gastrointestinal problems, loss of appetite, exhaustion, weight loss from malnutrition and rheumatism and it was used in Britain in the 19th century for treating rheumatic conditions.

The juices extracted from the petioles were used in the treatment of edema, rheumatic tendencies, gout, flatulence, overweight due to water retention and lack of appetite. Moreover the petiole which is crisp is also used as a vegetable worldwide.

Chemical constituents and therapeutic properties of Celery Seed oil:

With limonene as the major chemical component Celery seed oil consist of a-p-dimethyl styrene, N-pertyl benzene , caryophyllene, a-selinene, N-butyl phthalide, sedanenolide, sabinene, b-elemne, trans-1 2-epoxy limonene, linalool, isovalaric acid, cis-dihydrocarvone, trans-dihydrocarvone, trepinene-4-ol, 1-cis –p-menth-2,8-diene-1-ol, trans-p-menth-2, 8-diene-1-ol, alpha-terpineol, luteolin, carvone, trans-8-diene 1-ol,perialdehyde, apiin and thymol.

It also serves as an eminent nutritional supplement rich in Vitamin A, B, C & E, carbohydrate, protein, iron, potassium, water, fat, fiber, sodium, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium with traces of niacin, riboflavin and thiamine.

The therapeutic properties of Celery seed oil are aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, laxative, sedative, cardiac-stimulant, antiseptic, anti-emetic, diaphoretic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, mosquitocidal, nematicidal, anti-bacterial, stomachic, nervine and tonic.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Celery seed oil:

Illness, aging and death are the three major problems of mankind and have been drawing the interests of medical experts, researchers, and philosophers from the entire universe for innumerable years. Ayurveda, the mother of all healing sciences on earth exists for more than 5,000 years and it uses natural remedies for attaining longevity through prevention of diseases and a disciplined lifestyle.

Ayurvedic healing practices were recorded in the Vedic literature and Ayurvedic texts like Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. Charaka, known as the father of medicine has mentioned in his book Charaka Samhita that “The three – body, psyche, and soul – act as a tripod. The world stands upon them, and within them, the world abides.” This traditional remedial science robustly states that perfect health is a combination of physical, mental and spiritual wellness.

The science of Ayurveda considers human body as a temple and associates the divinity with the soul that dwells within the body. According to this ancient system, everything in the universe is a part of nature and is made up of the five elemental forces of nature, namely fire, water, air, earth and space.

Every individual is a unique creation with a unique individual constitution that holds three vital biological energies known as doshas. These energies are just a consequential depiction of the elements of nature.

Vata energy is an arrangement of air and space and is accountable for circulation, respiration and movement and vitiation of vata dosha causes breathing difficulties, neurological problems, nervous disorders, and menstrual discomforts.

Fire and water come together to embody Pitta dosha, which is in charge of metabolism and body temperature. Excess or deficit of pitta dosha might end up in constipation, fever, ulcer, indigestion, heartburn and other digestive disorders.

Kapha energy stands for earth and water and is responsible for the physical structure, movement of fluids and sustenance of the body. Surplus or deficiency of kapha dosha leads to sluggishness, obesity, respiratory problems, rheumatism and inflammatory conditions.

Ayurvedic philosophy states that the balance between these three doshas according to their natural composition contributes to well-being and imbalance of any one or all the three doshas causes sickness.

Ayurvedic remedies focus on treating the doshic imbalances with the help of essential oils, yoga, herbs, meditation, Ayurvedic routine, Ayurvedic massaging or Abhyanga, prayers, Panchakarma or detoxification techniques and simple physical exercises. These remedies differ from individual to individual on the basis of their unique individual constitution and medical conditions.

Celery seed oil with its hot, easy, light, pungent and dry properties is known for increasing pitta and vata dosha and for pacifying kapha types.

The Ayurvedic health benefits of Celery seed essential oil are:

celery-broucher21. Flushes out toxic substances and cleanses the system:

Surplus of kapha energy is responsible for water retention, stagnation of fluids, salt, toxins, uric acid, bad cholesterol and fat in the body. Celery seed oil is a promising Ayurvedic remedy for pacifying kapha dosha and thus it helps in eliminating toxins and other excess fluid deposits stagnated in the body through urine and sweat.

Along with this, the presence of Phthalides such as 3-n-Butylpthalide makes Celery seed oil as a potent diuretic that aids in flushing out toxins and fluid retention from the system and alleviates the symptoms of bloating.

As a natural stimulant, it stimulates the kidney to function actively in discharging excess water along with uric acid, fatty acids and other harmful substances that pave way to the formation of kidney stones, gravel and bladder stones.

Dirt or toxic deposits even in a smaller proportion in the system can result in malfunctioning of both the internal and the external organs. Liver plays a major role in eliminating the toxins from the body and is often prone to get affected seriously if the level of toxins is high. Celery seed oil is liver friendly and protects it against the harmful effects of acetaminophen (Tylenol) found in pain relievers, which are extremely poisonous when present in large amount and other hazardous particles.

Rheumatism is often a kapha imbalance caused due to the amassing of toxins, excess fluid, uric acid, salt and fatty acids especially in the joints. Massaging the affected parts or your entire body with 20 drops of Celery seed oil blended with 10 ml of coconut oil can assist in decreasing water retention, uric acid, toxins and other harmful particles in the system, thus helpful in the treatment of inflammation, overweight, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney infections, liver disorders and hypertension.

2. Acts as an excellent mosquito repellent:

Mosquitoes often act as vectors for numerous infectious viruses and parasites. With its mosquitocidal, nematicidal and antifungal compounds such as sedanolide, senkyunolide-N and senkyunolide-J, Celery seed oil acts as a tremendous mosquito repellent.

Many studies have revealed that Celery seed essential oil emitted strong repellency activity against wide range of mosquitoes belonging to various genera some of which are Aedes gardnerii, Aedes lineatopennis, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui group, Cx. Quinquefasciatus, Mansonia uniformis and Aedes aegypti – the vector of yellow fever, dengue fever and chikungunya.

Celery seed oil exhibits larvicidal and adulticidal repellent activities against Aedes aegypti which was identified by the toxic effect of this oil in the nervous system of the mosquito producing an abnormal movement in the larvae. This attribute makes this oil to be the safe and natural mosquito repellent than most other commercial repellents in the market.

Applying 2 drops of Celery seed oil blended with 1 ml of jojoba oil or your skin care cream or lotion on your skin can act as a protective shield against mosquitoes and guard you from mosquito-borne pathogens such as dengue, malaria, filariasis and tularemia. It is proven to be safe on human beings with no dermatological side effect during the course of research on the human volunteers.

3. Protects you against inflammation:

Celery seed oil is a natural remedy for inflammation associated with pain and discomfort, be it an acute or a chronic one. With apiin as one of its major component, it possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and kapha pacifying properties in-charge for inflamed conditions. Apiin has the potential of inhibiting the production of nitric oxide that acts as one of the inflammatory mediators.

Chemical components such as luteolin, limonene, apigenin, phthalides and coumarin possess very strong anti-inflammatory properties that help in fighting against inflammation in any part of the body and assist in reducing the risk of ailments such as heart diseases and cancer.

This attribute along with the diuretic property of Celery seed oil helps in recovering from the symptoms of gout and rheumatoid arthritis as mentioned by Michael T. Murray and Joseph E. Pizzorno in their book “The Encyclopedia of Healing foods”.

Celery Seed oil proves beneficial in dealing with the discomfort and degeneration the body joints due to aging. Gentle massage with 5 drops of Celery seed oil mixed with 2.5 ml of olive oil is recommended to ease the pain in joints due to arthritis and this also aids in retaining healthy joints.

Adding 3 drops of Celery seed oil in warm bathing water or in foot bath also helps in reducing the inflammation in the urinary tract and as a natural anti-fungal agent it destroys and inhibits the growth of Candida albicans that cause oral and genital infection in humans, for which this is used as an active ingredient in many urinary antiseptic products.

4. Relieves hypertension:

Celery seed oil serves as a natural vasorelaxant and anti-hypertensive agent that protects one from the risk of developing some fatal diseases associated with hypertension. Few among them are diabetes, endothelial dysfunction, renal dysfunction, congestive heart failure, metabolic syndrome, coronary artery disease and stroke.

The presence of chemical components such as apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and coumaric acid instill a relaxant effect in the central nervous system and helps in lowering hypertension.

Owing to its nervine qualities, Celery seed oil is vastly employed in treating nervousness, depression, anxiety and tension. It also serves as a wonderful antidote for alcoholism. With limonene acting as a mild tranquilizer, Celery seed oil works wonders with insomnia and addiction to alcohol or drug usage. Massage your system with 10 drops of this oil blended in 5 ml of almond oil, followed by a warm bath diluted with 3 drops of Celery oil and 2 drops added to diffuser to relieve hypertension and grant absolute relaxation.

5. Lowers blood pressure:

Celery seed oil contains apigenin and isoquerticin that aid in lowering the blood pressure by stimulating the expansion of blood vessels. The combination of several active components such as flavonoids, volatile oil, coumarins and linoleic acid contributes to the anti-oxidant property of Celery seed oil.

This helps in protecting the cells from being damaged and purifies the blood resulting in lowering the blood pressure and controlling the level of bad cholesterol in the blood. Adding 3 drops of Celery seed oil in warm bathing water and inhaling the tranquilizing aroma of this oil by adding 2 drops to your burner, vaporizer or diffuser can serve as a potent aid for lowering blood pressure.

6. Helps in alleviating gastric ulcer and other digestive problems:

The essential oil of Celery seed has excellent pitta increasing properties that stimulate Agni or the digestive fire responsible for trouble-free metabolic functions. This contributes to the stomachic and anti-ulcerogenic attributes of Celery seed oil, which imparts a soothing effect on the digestive system and assists in alleviating flatulence, indigestion, heartburn and poor appetite.

As a natural source of organic sodium, Celery seed oil is much protective in forming a defensive shield for the lining of the stomach and intestines. A 2010 research on the gastric anti-ulcer activity of Celery seed in rats states that the Celery extracts rich in flavonoids and alkaloids protected the stomach by protecting the gastric mucosa and suppressing the basal gastric secretion.

Moreover Celery essential oil is an antimicrobial agent that possess strong inhibition against bacteria such as Escherichia coli and fungus such as Candida albicans thus protecting the intestines from the infectious microbes and parasites.

Massaging your abdomen with 3 drops of Celery seed oil with 1.5 ml coconut oil can help in improving metabolism. 2 drops of this oil added to diffuser or burner can help in enhancing the appetite and 2 drops added to 1 cup of warm water can be used as a gargle for curbing oral infections and killing parasites and microbes in the stomach and intestines.

7. Eases feminine health mayhem:

Celery seed oil is in rich vitamins and minerals that help in regulating the flow of blood all over the body and assists in strengthening the muscles of the uterus. It helps in stimulating uterine contraction and induces menstruation, while reducing the pain and discomforts associated with it. This oil also regularizes the monthly menstrual cycle.

Being a rich source of calcium, Celery seed oil helps in the maintenance of healthy bones and teeth and aids in proper muscular contractions and alleviates the adverse impacts of osteoporosis after menopause. 5 drops of Celery oil mixed with 2.5 ml sesame oil can be massaged gently on your lower abdomen, genital parts and thighs for promoting delayed or blocked menstruation, reducing pain, treating menopausal problems and lessening fatigue and mood swings associated with menopause and menstruation.

Few studies also state that Celery seed oil may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer and breast cancer with its antioxidant properties. It helps in balancing the acid/ alkaline system in the body and aids in preventing cancer by reversing the effect of free radicals and inducing apoptosis in case of gastric, liver, colon, cervical and prostate cancer cells of human beings.

Other health benefits of Celery seed oil:

Celery seed oil acts as an aphrodisiac in stimulating the secretion of sexual hormones. Due to its sweet and earthy aroma it is often used in salads, soups and sauces. It is also employed in skin care to treat acne, scars and boils and in treating acute headaches, cold, flu, pyorrhea, anemia, mental stress, sleeplessness etc.

Due to its antibacterial, antifungal and mosquito repellent properties, this oil is used in the manufacturing of disinfectants, antiseptic creams and lotions, mosquito repellent creams, soaps and perfumes.

Disclaimer:

This article is only for the purpose of education and is not proposed to treat, prevent or make a diagnosis of any ailment or medical condition. Nor is it meant to substitute any prescribed medication or professional medical advice. We are not medical professionals and this information is only for the purpose of enlightening the readers with the ancient wisdom or knowledge of life known as Ayurveda.

Do not take essential oils internally and always use them in a diluted manner for topical use, as organic and pure essential oils are highly concentrated substances. Keep out of reach of children and it is always good to do a small patch test on your skin with the diluted essential oil. Pregnant women are not advised to use this oil as it stimulates and contracts the uterus and may result in miscarriage. Consult your healthcare expert or your Ayurvedic practitioner before choosing the right essential oils for your medical condition and prakriti or unique individual constitution.

Thought for the day:

We still do not know one thousandth of one percent of what nature has revealed to us.   -Albert Einstein

Suggested Reading:

  1. The Healing Remedies Sourcebook: Over 1000 Natural Remedies to Prevent and Cure Common Ailments by C. Norman Shealy
  2. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: The Complete Guide to the Use of Oils in Aromatherapy & Herbalism by Julia Lawless
  3. The Healing Intelligence of Essential Oils: The Science of Advanced Aromatherapy by Kurt Schnaubelt Ph.D.
  4. ISO 3760:2002, Oil of celery seed (Apium graveolens L.) by ISO/TC 54

Reference Links:

  1. Celery by Wikipedia
  2. The pharmacognostical ad pharmacological characterization of Apium Graveolens by Syed Sufiyan Fazal and Rajeev K Singla published in the 2012 Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  3. The Mosquito repellency of the seeds of Celery (Apium graveolens L.) published in PubMed
  4. The extract of Apium graveolens: structure of the major constituent, apiin, and its anti-inflammatory properties published in PubMed

Garlic Oil



Garlic-bannerKick cancer out of the world with nature’s best chemotherapy agent, sweetly known as Garlic. It is fêted as an ‘herb of passion’ for its power of influencing fortitude and natural energy levels and is celebrated as the most hopeful natural remedy for preventing cancer.

Besides being called as the stinking rose with its pungent and not so pleasing aroma, Garlic has a long medicinal  history in various traditions across the world and is also known as ‘cure-all’ for its ability to treat illnesses of the nervous system, circulatory system, digestive system, reproductive system and the respiratory system.

Botanically called as Allium sativa, Garlic has its origin in India and its essential oil is extracted from the bulbs through steam distillation method. Known by the name Rasona, Lahsoon and Yavanesta in Sanskrit, Garlic and its essential oil are used in Ayurveda for the treatment of cancer, heart diseases, diabetes, cold, rheumatism, high blood pressure, parasites, impotency, skin disorders, digestive problems, mental disturbances, fluid retention and joint problems.

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Historical uses and importance of Garlic:

Garlic is perceptibly a spectacular herb/vegetable with the human use of more than 7,000 years and is a member of the onion family, Allium. Indigenous to the central parts of Asia, Garlic is by far the most promising herbal remedy with the longest historical use. Its uses have been mentioned in various herbal guides by celebrated herbalists and physicians like Dioscorides, Galen, Hippocrates and Pliny the Elder, especially for treating digestive disorders, respiratory problems, wounds and low immune power.

The ancient Hindu mythology states that Garlic is a sacred herb grown from the drop of nectar (Amirtham – Elixir of life) spilled on earth when Lord Garuda took away the pot of nectar from Lord Indra to save his mother from evil powers. It is still believed that because of the divine qualities of the nectar, Garlic has innumerable healing properties and was named as Rason, meaning King of Rasas (It is also said that Garlic has 5 out of 6 prominent tastes in Ayurveda).

Another interesting historical reference is that Garlic was grown in the hanging gardens of Babylon and it was considered as an herb of empowerment for which it was given to Roman soldiers before the battle. The traditional European fishermen used to wear garlands made with Garlic cloves to guard themselves from sickness and evil spirits.

Garlic was the most primitive herb used as a ‘performance uplifting’ agent and was given to the Olympic athletes in primordial Greece. It is also said that Garlic was used during the construction of the Giza pyramids before 5,800 years. It was also used in Nepal, Middle East and eastern parts of Asia for treating tuberculosis, bronchitis, rheumatism, fever, flatulence, colic, liver problems, intestinal worms, hypertension and digestive problems.

It is a part of most of the delicious cuisines all over the world as a spice, condiment or seasoning for its strong aroma and the flavor it adds to any dish especially the non-vegetarian food varieties. Garlic bread, garlic chicken, crostini, garlic toast and many other Asian and Mediterranean cuisines are crowned with the rich flavor of this wonder herb.

Therapeutic properties and chemical constituents of Garlic essential oil:

Garlic oil is known for its carminative, antibacterial, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, immune-booster, anticancer, antibiotic, expectorant, antispasmodic, disinfectant, anti-carcinogenic, antithrombotic, stimulant, anti-arthritic, antiviral, rejuvenative, anti-hyperlipidaemic and alterative properties.

The major chemical components that contribute to the healing values of Garlic oil are selenium, allicin, alliin, phytoncide, S-allylcysteine thiacremonone, ajoene and diallyl polysulphides.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Garlic essential oil:

Disease, aging and death are the three major causes of concern for mankind and have been attracting the attention of medical researchers, philosophers and heath care experts from all over the world since ages.

Ayurveda, the holistic healing methodology aging about 5,000 years aims at attaining longevity through healthy aging and prevention of illnesses. This ancient remedial science strongly states that absolute health is a medley of physical, mental and spiritual well-being.

This Vedic system strongly considers human body as a temple and relates the divine power with the soul that rests within. According to this philosophy all things on earth are a part of nature and are made up of the five vital elements of nature, namely earth, water, air, fire and ether.

Every person is a unique creation with a unique individual constitution that embraces three vital biological energies called as doshas. These energies are just a meaningful representation of the elements of nature.

Kapha dosha symbolizes earth and water and is in charge of the physical structure and sustenance of the body, the imbalance of which leads to obesity and respiratory problems. Vata dosha is a combination of air and ether and is responsible for circulation, movement and respiration and vata vitiation causes neurological disorders, nervous problems, breathing difficulties and menstrual difficulties.

Fire and water combine together and represent Pitta dosha, which is responsible for body temperature, digestion and other metabolic functions. Lack or excess of pitta dosha might end up in fever, indigestion, constipation, heartburn, ulcer and other digestive disorders. Balance between these three doshas contributes to healthiness and imbalance of any one or all the three doshas cause illness.

Ayurvedic remedies aim at treating the doshic imbalances with the help of herbs, plant essential oils, yoga, meditation, Ayurvedic routine, prayers and simple physical exercises. These remedies vary from individual to individual based upon their unique individual constitution and state of health.

Garlic is one among the ancient Ayurvedic remedies for treating various health conditions and have been a vital part of numerous Ayurvedic preparations. The book on ‘Ayurveda and Aromatherapy’ by Bryan Miller and Light Miller quotes Garlic as a highly rejuvenative oil, especially for the nerve tissue. Garlic oil is good for increasing pitta dosha and lessening excess of vata and kapha energies.

The Ayurvedic health benefits of Garlic oil are:

Garlic-broucher1. Excellent aid to digestive disorders:

From Stone Age to this contemporary era, Garlic is a promising home remedy for assisting problems associated with digestion. 2 to 3 cloves of Garlic boiled in a cup of water can be a sure shot remedy for treating indigestion, sluggishness, diarrhea, nausea and gastric troubles. It is regarded as a great natural medicine for supporting digestion by stimulating the appetite and enhancing the process of metabolism.

Imbalance or vitiation of pitta dosha is the major reason for digestive disorders. Garlic has the ability to increase pitta energy and regularizes Agni or the digestive fire and other metabolic functions.

Adding 1 drop of Garlic oil to your handkerchief or tissue and inhaling this strong aroma or mixing 2 drops of this oil with 1 ml of coconut oil can help in fighting against intestinal parasites, inflammation in the stomach and intestines, treat colitis, infectious diseases, stomach upset, dysentery and food poisoning.

This oil works effectively against food poisoning by combating harmful bacteria like Salmonella enteritidis and E.coli, which are responsible for food poisoning and other stomach infections. It acts by penetrating through the skin cells and entering the blood stream, where it passes on its remedial properties to the system.

2. Fights against cancerous cells:

Garlic oil has anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, antithrombotic and anti-cancer properties, which help in preventing the growth of new cancerous cells in the body and curtailing the growth of existing cancer cells in the body. Numerous researches and studies have proved the potent of Garlic and its extracts in treating various types of cancer ranging from brain cancer to prostate cancer.

Garlic is first on the list of potential cancer-preventative foods by the American National Cancer Institute and the American Journal of Nutrition issued on October 2000 had published numerous epidemiologic studies stating that the people who used Garlic and its extracts regularly had only a lesser amount (1/3rd) of risk of colorectal cancer and not as much of risk of stomach cancer when compared to people who took little or no Garlic or its extracts.

The presence of numerous (30+) powerful anti-cancer and antioxidant compounds in Garlic oil including ajoene, diallyl sulphide, quercetin and alliin have the power to wedge cancer creating agents like aflatoxin and nitrosamine associated with liver, lung and stomach cancer. These components work like a natural chemotherapy agent and have been proved in various studies for impeding the growth of malignant cancer cells.

A 2008 study on the ‘Anticancer effects of diallyl trisulphide derived from Garlic’ suggest “diallyl trisulfide is responsible, at least in part, for the epidemiologically proven anticancer effect for garlic eaters.” It is also said that the diallyl sulphide in Garlic is known to curb the conversion of PhIP, which is a kind heterocyclic amine that has been related with the increased cause of breast cancer in women.

A report on Garlic and Cancer prevention published in the National Cancer Institute website states five strong reasons for using Garlic to prevent cancer. They are “Protective effects from garlic may arise from its antibacterial properties or from its ability to block the formation of cancer-causing substances, halt the activation of cancer-causing substances, enhance DNA repair, reduce cell proliferation, or induce cell death.”

The best ways to use Garlic for cancer prevention is to add 2 to 3 cloves of raw or cooked Garlic in your diet along with a soothing massage with 2 drops of Garlic oil blended with 1 ml of virgin olive oil for promising results.

3. Controls hypertension and protects the heart:

Garlic is a rich source of allicin and it controls the function of angiotensin II, which is a protein that aids the contracting of blood vessels thus increasing the blood pressure gradually. Along with this, the red blood cells in our body convert the polysulphides in Garlic into hydrogen sulphide, which expands the blood vessels and assists in controlling high blood pressure.

Garlic oil acts as a protective shield for the heart by protecting it from hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart attacks and certain other cardiovascular problems. The sulfur-based compounds present in Garlic controls the blood vessels from being blocked and support the functioning of arteries that gradually lose its potent with age. This oil also guards the heart from the harmful damage of free radicals with its antioxidant properties.

By this way, regular use of Garlic oil and Garlic cloves help in slowing down atherosclerosis (thickening of the arteries). This oil reduces platelet aggregation and relaxes the walls of the blood vessels by stimulating the production of nitric oxide.

It is also a potent anti-clotting agent with the presence of ajoene that curbs the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels. A study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry says, “Garlic oil possesses significant potential for protecting hearts from diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy.

Inhaling the aroma of Garlic oil with 1 drop of this oil added to tissue or massaging your chest with 2 drops of Garlic oil blended with 1 ml of olive oil can assist in treating atherosclerosis, blocks in the blood vessels, heart attacks, high blood pressure and other cardiovascular disorders along with the strengthening of cardiac muscles.

4. Keeps respiratory infections at bay:

Cold, flu, cough and other respiratory infections are mainly due to the excess of kapha dosha. Garlic oil has the natural warmth in its essence and it lessens the excess of kapha energy. This oil also has antibiotic, expectorant, decongestant, antiviral and antibacterial properties that work together to curtail the growth of harmful micro-organisms that worsen respiratory infections.

Add 2 drops of Garlic oil in steam inhalation and inhaling this healing aroma and massaging your chest with 1 drop of Garlic oil mixed with vaporub or ointments can be of great aid in treating and preventing common cold, whooping cough, asthma, chronic bronchitis and breathing difficulties.

5. Reduces cholesterol and checks obesity:

LDL (bad cholesterol) and lower serum triglycerides are the worst enemies of the human body. Garlic oil aids in maintaining HDL or the good healthy cholesterol and decreasing the level of bad cholesterol thus it lessens total cholesterol levels in the body, blood triglycerides and decreases the formation of arterial plaque.

Along with this, Garlic oil also assists in controlling the formation of fat cells and helps in eliminating the excess deposits of water, salts, fat and other toxic substances contributing to obesity. It prevents weight gain with its anti-inflammatory property mainly due to the presence of 1, 2-DT (1, 2-vinyldithiin) in Garlic.

Massaging your body with 5 drops of Garlic oil mixed with 3 ml of sesame oil aids in dissolving fat cells and discharging excess water and toxic deposits from the body by promoting frequent urination and sweating. This massaging can also be useful in reducing inflammation in case of arthritis and rheumatism.

6. Strengthens your immune system:

Garlic oil is an effective immune booster with the presence of various nutrients like vitamin C, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and B9 along with magnesium, iron, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, sodium, protein, potassium and carbohydrates, all of which make Garlic a potent powerhouse. The antioxidant property of this oil fights against aging symptoms and protects the body from the hazardous effects of free radicals.

As a powerful antiviral, antifungal, antibiotic and antibacterial oil, Garlic has a positive effect on the immune system by acting as a police force that fights against destructive microbes and infectious diseases spread by them. Inhaling the spicy aroma of Garlic oil by adding 1 drop of this oil to your diffuser can help in activating the white blood cells and the immune system, through which it increases the body’s resisting capacity against various diseases.

7. Stimulates your system:

Ayurveda classifies food into three major categories namely rajasic (fiery), sattvic (fresh and pure) and tamasic (flawed).  Amadea Morningstar says “Energetically, rajasic foods stimulate more fire, aggression, passion. They are good foods for stirring up trouble or spurring on the dragons within.”

Garlic is a rajasic food that awakens, influences and stimulates the inner power and passion. It is said to bring consciousness and awareness in the body. It is for this property, Garlic and its essential oil is said to treat sexual disorders like impotency and other reproductive problems. Add 1 drop of Garlic oil in vaporizer or aromatic candles and inhale the aroma for enhancing the natural levels of energy in the body and to rekindle your spirit.

Other health benefits:

Garlic oil is also an excellent remedy for treating pimples, blackheads, acne, athlete’s foot and wrinkles. It is also said to prevent scurvy, due to its high content of Vitamin C and beriberi with its power to enhance thiamin absorbing capacity in the body and reduce the level of blood sugar in diabetes mellitus patients.

Disclaimer:

This information is only for the purpose of education and is not intended to diagnose or substitute any prescribed medication or professional medical advice. Never take essential oils internally and always remember using essential oils topically in a diluted form only, as pure and organic essential oils are highly concentrated substances and may cause harmful effects if used directly on the skin. Seek advice from an Ayurvedic professional before selecting the right essential oil for your state of health and unique individual constitution.

Thought for the day:

Let the gentle bush dig its root deep and spread upward to split the boulder.
-Carl Sandburg

Suggested Reading:

  1. Garlic, Garlic, Garlic: More than 200 Exceptional Recipes for the World’s Most Indispensable Ingredient by Linda Griffith, Fred Griffith
  2. Garlic: Nature’s Original Remedy by Stephen Fulder, John Blackwood
  3. Garlic: The Mighty Bulb by Natasha Edwards
  4. The Complete Book of Garlic: A Guide for Gardeners, Growers, and Serious Cooks by Ted Jordan Meredith
  5. Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and The Science by Eric Block

Reference Links:

  1. Garlic by Wikipedia
  2. Garlic and Cancer Prevention by National Cancer Institute
  3. What are the benefits of Garlic? by Medical News Today
  4. All About Garlic by MAS Ayurveda
  5. Anticancer effects of diallyl trisulfide derived from garlic by Seki T, Hosono T, Hosono-Fukao T, Inada K, Tanaka R, Ogihara J, Ariga T, Department of Applied Life Sciences, Nihon University Graduate School of Bioresource Sciences, Fujisawa, Japan published in PubMed