Avocado Oil



Avocado-bannerHappiness is a fresh, seasonal Avocado’, is the most stirring quote that made me rapt in the recent times. What is all in an Avocado that brings so much joy to humanity?

Avocado is nature’s souvenir that has been trusted and taken for treating cardiovascular problems, psoriasis, periodontal conditions, obesity, diabetes, wrinkles, halitosis, hair loss and numerous other medical conditions.

“Avocado is sweet and warm, excellent for the liver, high in vitamin E, is a skin moisturizer, and is good for weak tissues”, quotes Light Miller and Bryan Miller in their book ‘Ayurveda and Aromatherapy.

Called as Neerabijh (Sanskrit) or Makhanphal (Hindi) in Ayurveda, Avocado is employed in Ayurvedic healing as a skin tonic and for reducing bad cholesterol and chronic constipation; boosting libido, regulating insulin secretion, fighting against free radicals, enhancing ojas (strength, endurance and brilliance); and for treating alopecia, insomnia and joint pain.

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Remedial properties and chemical constituents of Avocado oil:

Avocado is nature’s source of power with vitamins, including vitamin A, C, E, B-6 and K1 along with riboflavin, folate, niacin, choline, dietary fiber, proteins, pantothenic acid, magnesium, potassium, zeaxanthin/lutein,  PFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid), (fatty acids namely Linoleic, Palmitoleic, Palmitic, Oleic, Stearic acid) MUFA(Monounsaturated fatty acid) and SFA (Saturated fatty acid).

Avocado oil contains remedial phytosterols like campesterol, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol and bio-active phytochemicals including terpenoids, glutathione, carotenoids, phenols, tannins, lecithin, sterolin, D-mannoheptulose and persenone A and B.

Botanically called as Persea Americana, Avocado oil has anti-carcinogenic, demulcent, laxative, emollient, antiparasitic, carminative, astringent, regenerative, diuretic, cardiovascular, detoxifying, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-aging and anti-arthritic properties.

Historical uses and significance of Avocado oil:

Avocado is said to have been born in Mexico in the state of Puebla, though various substantiations from fossil testing states that it might have originated in California. It is recorded as one of the most primitive fruits consumed by the Mesoamerican populace, including the Maya, Olmec and the Mokaya of the Soconusco.

The ancient proof of Avocado’s presence in Mexico dates back to 10,000 BC. The leading producers of Avocado are Mexico with 500,000 tons per year, followed by California with 200,000 tons and Florida with 35,000 tons.

Avocados have been used by the Maya populace of Guatemala for diagnosing diarrhea, warding off intestinal worms and parasites and for enhancing the growth of healthy hair.

The Mexican iconography portrays Avocado and the Nahuatl term for avocado is ahuacatl, which means testicle in English. In accordance to the Mexican mythology, the fruit of avocado grants enormous energy.

Gutierrez and Villanueva, the popular Chroniclers of Spain denote Avocado as, “a fruit’s form contributes to its properties: the outer form is a result of inner forces. The avocado is shaped like a testicle, and it can therefore transfer that strength to whoever eats it.” Sounds great! Isn’t it???

It’s time to relate the effectiveness of Avocado as an immune stimulant and a sexual booster and one among the best natural alternative for delaying the aging process.

From the prehistoric times till today, Avocado and its cold-pressed magnificent oil is used in the manufacturing of soaps, shampoos, conditioners, serums, moisturizing creams, lotions, massage blends and an extensive array of cosmetic products.

Avocado is a familiar cooking oil with manifold benefits in it. It is a vital part of the popular Mexican dip, Guacamole and in corn tortillas. Salads, soups, desserts, savory dishes, snacks, sandwiches, hot dogs, hamburgers and a long-drawn-out list has Avocado as a main ingredient for its creamy taste and bulky benefits.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Avocado oil:

Avocado is an excellent remedial bliss in disguise, just like a Jackfruit that is rough on the outside and extremely sweet and smooth in the inside.

Ayurveda states that the fruit of Avocado and the oil extracted from its pulp is extremely beneficial in the treatment of vata dosha vitiations like scaly skin, psoriasis, constipation, rough and aged-skin, muscular stiffness, dry hair, joint pain, insomnia, improper blood circulation and wrinkles.

Avocado is also a promising remedy in the treatment of Pitta imbalances like poor metabolism, ulcer, tension, heartburn and inflammatory conditions.

Avocado is used in massage since the traditional times, especially for its enormous benefits to the skin.

Ayurveda denotes that all things in this universe is made up of five vital elements namely fire, earth, water, air and space and these are together known as Panchamahabhutas or the building blocks of life.

 “Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind and intellect and also ego-sense; these are the eight-fold division of my nature. This is inferior. Know my mother nature, the higher, Oh Mighty-Armed, the life-element by which the universe is upheld”. (7:4-5)  – Bhagavad Gita

Earth consists of all the natural nutrients like vitamins, minerals (iron, calcium, magnesium and potassium) and phytochemicals within it. Every single plant that grows on earth observes these natural nutrients based upon its temperament and the environment in which it grows.

Since human body is also a combination of these 5 vital elements and it also contains such vital nutrients and these are responsible for the well-being of various parts of the body. Deficiency or excess of any of these natural nutrients leads to illness.

Thus treating such insufficiency with natural alternatives aids in diagnosing the illness initially and thus prevent it in the future as well.

For example, deficiency of vitamin A might end up in night blindness and other ocular effects, dry and scaly skin, respiratory infections, follicular thickening of the skin surface, low immunity and growth retardation problems in children.

Intake of natural foods that are rich in Vitamin A like carrots, sweet potato, lettuce, melon, tropical fruits and other green leafy vegetables can assist in treating the symptoms and diagnosing Vitamin A deficiency disorders.

Bright colored vegetables and fruits acquire vitamins from the earth and thus vitamin deficiencies are treated naturally by ingesting such food varieties.

In a much similar way, Avocado is rich in Vitamins C, E, B and K, potassium and monounsaturated fatty acids like oleic acid. Eating fresh Avocados and using Avocado oil for dermal use might assist in balancing such deficiencies in the system.

The most momentous Ayurvedic benefits of Avocado and its nourishing oil are as follows:

avocado-broucher1. Assists in the treatment of arthritis and rheumatism:

The presence of phytochemicals in Avocado is a healthy reason for its effectiveness in the treatment of osteoarthritis and other inflammatory conditions. It is for this reason, Avocado along with the blend of Soybean oil is recommended by Denmark as a food supplement for treating inflammation and influencing the repair and growth of cartilage.

France has determined this duo oil as prescription medicine. This is further substantiated by various research analyses published in the journal ‘Ugeschrift for laeger’ that have proved the usefulness of this blend in the healing of osteoarthritis in the knee and hip area.

Avocado oil inhibited a pro-inflammatory cytokine molecule” states the research report published in the 2006 Journal Periodontal Disease issue, where human bone cells and periodontal ligaments were studied, thus demonstrating that Avocado oil with its anti-inflammatory values aids in reducing inflammation and preventing certain other symptoms of periodontal disease like erosion of bone.

The anti-inflammatory attribute of Avocado oil is endorsed to its rich presence of phytonutrients like polyphenols and flavonoids.

A 2007 study ‘Metabolic Effects of Avocado/Soy Unsaponifiables on Articular Chondrocytes’ published in Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine and PubMed concludes “there is substantial evidence that ASU (Avocado/Soy Unsaponifiables) containing sterols are anti-inflammatory and provide protection against cartilage degeneration.”

It further adds “The major components of ASU by weight are the phytosterols beta-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. Phytosterols in general, and beta-sitosterol in particular, are now considered potent anti-inflammatory agents with antioxidant and analgesic activity.”

Massaging the painful parts with 2 ounce of Avocado oil blended with 1 ounce of Soybean oil can be of immense help in fighting against free radicals, reducing pain, inflammation, muscular stiffness and cartilage damages and in enhancing blood circulation in the affected area.

Pranayama or conscious breathing assists in the treatment of rheumatism, atherosclerosis, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions that mainly occur due to the stagnation of toxic remains in the system, where ama or toxic substances in the body are flushed out through slow and steady exhalation.

2. Supports healthy heart functions by condensing cholesterol levels:

The presence of beta-sitosterol makes Avocado and its oil as the friendliest oil for supporting the healthy functions of your heart. This is a type of phytosterol, which is structurally alike to body’s cholesterol.

They are often termed as ‘heart healthy nutrients’ because of their efficacy in converting low healthy fats into substances that will be comparatively less detrimental to the cells and are more exploitable.

Avocado with its phytosterol components does enormous goodness to the system as its anti-inflammatory properties due to phytosterol compounds help in reducing the risk of heart diseases mainly due to deposits of plaque or other mass substances.

Avocado and its oil help in trimming down excess inflammation and clog in the arteries and thwart the arterial walls from all kinds of damages and aid in maintaining normal levels of blood pressure.

Research study on the effects of increased ingestion of Avocado has witnessed considerable decrease of cholesterol levels in blood. This analysis sustained for about 7 days with diet rich in Avocados, where patients with slight hypercholesterolemia evidenced a 17 percent drop off in the levels of total serum cholesterols.

It also evidenced about 11 percent increase in HDL (good cholesterol) and 22 percent decrease in the levels of triglyceride and LDL (bad cholesterol), thus Avocados have also been proven to support healthier lipid profiles.

Eating Avocados in salad or as whole is a great way to relay its immense benefits to your system but Avocado oil is of great significance as it exists in a more concentrated form.

Blend 4 ounce of Avocado oil with 5 drops of Ginger oil and 5 drops of Spearmint oil and rejuvenate your system with a warm massage on your weekends. Indeed it is one among the comfy way to get rid of excess cholesterol and toxic remains in your system.

3. ‘Pick-me-up’ oil for most of your skin problems:

Pick up the most capacious oil of Avocado with your eyes closed just for the treatment of most of your skin conditions.

Avocado and its nourishing pulpy oil is known for repairing the damaged skin cells, supporting the growth of new cells, moisturizing the skin, augmenting the production of collagen and for treating wrinkles, fine lines, crow’s foot and certain other symptoms of aging.

The significant factors behind the skin nourishing attribute of Avocado oil is the presence of enormous nutrients including potassium, vitamins A, D and E (act as antioxidants), sterolin, lecithin, proteins and high presence of unsaturated fatty acids including omega-3 fatty acids.

Blend 2 ounce of Avocado oil with 10 drops of Evening Primrose oil and 10 drops of Jojoba oil. Relish your skin and your senses with this rich massage blend for about twice in a week. Leave it to rest for about half an hour. Follow this massage with a cool bath and feel the difference of your skin in less than 2 months.

The presence of sterolin, unsaturated fatty acids, proteins and antioxidant vitamins in Avocado oil assists deeper penetration into the skin surface and the bloodstream.

This in turn softens, moisturizes, repairs, rejuvenates and backs up healthy skin from within. Aging spots, psoriasis, eczema, dry skin, mature skin conditions and sun damage can be treated effectively with this wholesome oil.

A 12 week study listed in the Journal of Dermatology on the effectiveness of Avocado oil and Vitamin B12 on Psoriasis evidenced regular progress in the participants suffering from psoriasis.

4. Enhances digestive power and aids in weight management:

Avocado and its oil are known to increase the efficacy and the normal functioning of the digestive tract.

The oil of Avocado has soothing effects on the intestine, stomach and the digestive system as a whole. Being a mild and gentle oil, Avocado can assist in the treatment of ulcer, heartburn, improper metabolic functions and inflammation in the stomach and intestines.

Essential fatty acids (EFAs) like omega-3 fatty acid support in improving your metabolism and boost your appetite, thus granting you a feeling of fullness with its enormous nutrient content.

A balanced and healthy diet with regular exercise, healthy lifestyle practices, proper utilization of your physical and emotional energies, meditation and supporting techniques including massage with Ayurvedic oils like Avocado and detoxification for eliminating the toxic remains in your system, is more than enough to shed your extra pounds and live fit forever.

Massaging your abdomen with 10 drops of Avocado oil mixed with 1 drop of Lemon oil and 1 drop of Peppermint oil, especially before your meals is an excellent way to nurture your appetite and soothe the lining of the stomach and intestines.

A 2014 study on the ‘Effect of Dietary Intake of Avocado Oil and Olive Oil on Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Sucrose-Fed Rats’ published in the BioMed Research International states that the intake of sucrose affects the total levels of bilirubin and proteins, which affects the function of liver and other metabolic mayhems.

Avocado oil administration revealed the beginning of a regeneration of liver function and Avocado oil exhibits effects similar to those of olive oil,” concludes this study.

5. Fights against cancerous attacks:

Avocado oil is powered with enormous antioxidants including carotenoids, polyphenols, tocopherols and proanthocyanidins. These antioxidants help in fighting against the free radicals responsible for cellular degeneration and the development of tumors in cancerous attacks.

The anti-cancer or anti-carcinogenic properties of Avocado is attributed to the presence of bioactive chemical components like terpenoids, carotenoids, D-mannoheptulose, phenols, persenone A and B, and glutathione, where glutathione is a tripeptide that consists of three amino acids namely glycine, glutamic acid and cysteine.

The National Cancer Institute found that Avocado’s glutathione levels of 8.4 mg per 30 g or 19 mg per one-half fruit is several fold higher than that of other fruits,” quotes the study Dietary glutathione intake and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer by the Emory University School of Public Health, GA.

A 2013 study on ‘Dietary avocado oil supplementation attenuates the alterations induced by type I diabetes and oxidative stress in electron transfer at the complex II-complex III segment of the electron transport chain in rat kidney mitochondria’ published in PubMed states “a protective effect of avocado oil against lipid peroxidation was observed consistently only in control mitochondria.”

This study concludes that the defensive outcome of Avocado oil is attributed to the antioxidant effects of carotenoids and glutathione that penetrates through the blood stream and reaches mitochondria (vital part of the cellular structure), where energy production and respiration happens.

Other benefits:

The other popular health benefits of Avocado oil are its effectiveness in the treatment of cracked heels, sunburn, insect stings, dandruff, wounds, loss of libido, blisters, bad breath, rashes, insomnia, periodontal diseases and more.

Disclaimer:

This piece of information is only for educational purposes and is not in any way meant to be used for diagnosis or as a substitute for any prescribed medications or the professional advice of your Doctor. We, at Essential Depot are not healthcare experts and this article is written only with the intention of sharing the ancient wisdom of Ayurveda.

Essential oils are meant for topical use only and not for ingestion, as pure and organic essential oils are the life force of plants and are highly concentrated substances. Seek the advice of your Ayurvedic expert or healthcare professional before choosing the appropriate essential oils for your state of health and unique individual constitution.

Thought for the day:

The Avocado is a food without rival among the fruits, the veritable fruit of paradise.

– David Fairchild

Suggested Reading:

  1. The Avocado: Botany, Production and Uses from Brand: CABI
  2. AVOCADO & HONEY FACIAL MASK – FOR NATURALLY BEAUTIFUL & HEALTHY SKIN (Essential Oil Spa) by KG Stiles
  3. Avocado Oil: The miracle health benefits, fat loss facts & kitchen tips (Avocado recipes, Avocado Oil for weight loss) by Margaret Horton
  4. Avocado 55 Success Secrets – 55 Most Asked Questions On Avocado – What You Need To Know by Teresa Kramer
  5. Absolutely Avocados by Gaby Dalkin

Reference Links:

  1. Avocado by Wikipedia
  2. Hass Avocado Composition and Potential Health Effects by Mark L. Dreher and Adrienne J. Davenport, published in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition and PubMed
  3. Domestication and Significance of Persea Americana, the Avocado, in Mesoamerica by Amanda J. Landon published in Digital Commons, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
  4. Metabolic Effects of Avocado/Soy Unsaponifiables on Articular Chondrocytes by Louis Lippiello, Joseph V. Nardo, Robert Harlan, and Tiffany Chiou, published in Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  5. Effect of Dietary Intake of Avocado Oil and Olive Oil on Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Sucrose-Fed Rats’ published in the BioMed Research International

Bergamot Oil



Bergamot essential oil is effective in treating addictions and depression. It is also an excellent aid for digestion and congestion.

Bergamot-bannerBergamot is a wonderful antidepressant and is a boon for people who suffer due to depression and are unable to experience and enjoy the richness of life, which reflects itself in liver congestion and gall bladder obstruction”, says Light Miller and Bryan Miller in their book Ayurveda and Aromatherapy. Botanically called as Citrus bergamia, Bergamot is another famous member of the Citrus family Rutaceae.

The rich, herbaceous and fruity-aromatic essential oil is cold pressed from the rind of the Bergamot fruit, which is also called in Ayurveda with the same name. Bergamot and its essential oil have been recommended in the Ayurvedic treatment for healing skin rashes, sores, acne, fever, obesity, depression, eczema, gingivitis, sore throat, flatulence, loss of appetite, bladder infections and compulsive behaviors.

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Historical uses and importance of Bergamot essential oil:

The name Bergamot is said to have come from the Italian province in Lombardy known as Bergamo. Few sources also state that this name is derived from the Turkish word ‘beg-armudi’, meaning ‘prince of pears’ or ‘prince’s pear’ or ‘the lord’s pear”. Well known to the world as an incredible ingredient of Earl Gray tea, Bergamot and its essential oil have been in the history of various cultures for its medicinal and culinary uses.

Indigenous to the Southeast Asian countries, Bergamot is also claimed as the native fruit from Greece. Later it was introduced to various European countries and is also found growing in Algeria, Morocco, Ivory Coast and Tunisia. About 80% of the world’s total Bergamot production is from the province of Reggio di Calabria in Italy.  It takes about 100 Bergamot oranges to extract 3 ounces of Bergamot essential oil.

The star-like white flowers, feathery leaves and the pear-shaped citrus fruit similar to a cross between a lime and orange have made many countries famous including the Calabria region of Italy. Certain genetic research studies reveal that Bergamot orange is likely to be a hybrid of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and lime (Citrus limetta).

Bergamot is also called as a cross between a grapefruit and an orange tree. These pulpy and juicy fruits are often used in cooking and the most popular dessert with Bergamot in the Middle East countries and America is the Turkish delight. Bergamot juice has been used in the traditional Calabrian medicine for the treatment of malaria and other chronic fevers.

This nutritious fruit and its essential oil were used in the traditional and folklore medicines for treating fever, urinary tract infections, acne, psoriasis, respiratory disorders, cystitis, depression, digestive problems, cold sores, chicken pox and anxiety.

Bergamot peel oil has been a fundamental component in various fragrance formulations. It has also been used as a prime ingredient in the original Eau de Cologne by Farina in Germany in the 18th century. It is also used in the production of marmalades, smokeless tobacco products, digestive liqueur named Liquore al Bergamotto and much more.

Chemical constituents or Gas Chromatography Report (GC) of Bergamot oil:

According to the Gas chromatography report, Bergamot oil constitutes of 19 chemical components that contribute to its fragrance, therapeutic attributes, consistency and quality of this citrus oil. Of which, Limonene contributes to the highest proportion of Bergamot oil constituents with about 39.6% of its total composition.

Just click on:

I trust that this must certainly help you in getting to know the exclusive information about these prime chemical constituents of Bergamot oil.

The table crafted below clearly depicts the unique nature and contributions of these biochemical constituents to the healing magnificence of Bergamot essential oil.

bergamot-gc-2Therapeutic properties of Bergamot essential oil:

The remedial attributes of Bergamot oil are anti-depressant, sedative, antiseptic, analgesic, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, antibiotic, vulnerary, cicatrisant, disinfectant, deodorant, antispasmodic, vermifuge, relaxant, anti-infectious and stimulant.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Bergamot essential oil:

Ayurveda is the oldest healing sciences on earth and it has its origin in India, the country with the oldest historical references. The Indian Hindu mythology has 4 major sacred books also known as Vedas, namely Yajur, Rig, Sama and Atharvaveda. Among these holy books, Ayurveda has been an integral part of Atharvaveda where about 114 verses talk about extensive Ayurvedic remedies and principles to lead a holistic life.

Ayurvedic philosophy was further strengthened by the pioneer Ayurvedic philosophers like Charaka (respected as the ‘Father of medicine’) and Sushruta (celebrated as the ‘Father of surgery’), who wrote Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita respectively. These two Ayurvedic encyclopedias were combined together and represented as Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita.

More than just a traditional healing system, Ayurveda has been held high as a holistic approach with a bundle of values and disciplines for leading a responsible life. Ayurveda trusts on Mother Nature and believes that illness is a result of imbalance between an individual and nature. With this idea, Ayurvedic remedies always stick on to natural medications, believing that nature has a cure for everything within it.

Ayurveda considers sickness as a significant opportunity to explore various aspects that contribute to the illness. It is a known fact that Mother Nature is built up of five vital elements, namely earth, water, fire, air and space. As a part of nature, human beings are also made up of these vital elements called as Panchamahabutas.

According to Ayurveda, every person is a unique creation with a unique individual constitution, which comprises of 3 fundamental biological forces known as doshas. They are vata, pitta and kapha doshas and each of these doshas are a combination of the 5 elements of nature.

Every Ayurvedic treatment begins with the identification of the Prakriti or the unique individual constitution. Every human being has a predominance of one of these doshas, which mainly determines the physical, psychological and behavioral attributes.

Balance between these doshas as per nature’s law indicates healthiness and imbalance due to lifestyle changes, food habits, climatic conditions and undisciplined actions causes sickness. Unique Ayurvedic remedies are prescribed for every individual based on their individual constitution and the root cause of a disease. This aids in diagnosing the illness at the first stage and preventing it in future also.

The prime Ayurvedic medications are herbs, plant essential oils, yoga, meditation, simple physical exercises, prayers, Pranayama and certain Ayurvedic techniques including Abhyanga or Ayurvedic massaging, an Ayurvedic routine, and Panchakarma (the Ayurvedic detox techniques.) With its heating and drying energies, Bergamot essential oil is known to pacify vata and kapha imbalances and augment pitta dosha.

The Ayurvedic health benefits of Bergamot essential oil are:

Bergamot-broucher--info-1. Relieves from fear, anxiety and depression:

Emotional barriers like anxiety, fear, depression and mood fluctuations have a greater impact on your routine and contribute to various adverse effects in your personal as well as professional life.

The reasons for these negative emotions are often inexpressive and at times we realize that we are depressed or put off for no valid reason. Whatever the causes may be, the remedy for such unhealthful feelings should be a proven anti-depressant that aids in uplifting the senses and stimulating positive energy.

Bergamot is one such excellent anti-depressant and a universally accepted mood enhancer. It is for these reasons; this essential oil is often used in Aromatherapy treatments and other Alternative medicinal practices.

Inhaling the magical aroma of this oil by adding 2 to 3 drops of Bergamot oil in vaporizer or diffuser can help in enhancing your mood, instill a feeling of newness and stimulate the secretion of hormones that help in overcoming such difficult moments.

This has been proven in a Korean study that analyzed the effects of Bergamot oil on pulse rate and blood pressure. The study further concluded that inhaling the energizing aroma of Citrus bergamia oil is extremely effective in lessening psychological stress responses, blood pressure in people with hypertension and the level of serum cortisol.

You can start your own home spa just with a small collection of invigorating essential oils like Bergamot. Massaging your system with 5 drops of Bergamot oil, 5 drops of Neroli oil, 5 drops of Cypress oil and 5 drops of Juniper oil along with 20 ml of sweet almond oil is the best way to fortify your senses, augment your blood circulation, calm your muscles, strengthen your mind and gift yourself with absolute tranquility.

Followed by this massage, enhance your energy level by taking a warm bath diluted with 5 drops of Bergamot oil, 5 drops of Ylang Ylang oil and 5 drops of Lavender oil. What’s next? You are done for the day and it’s time to realize that your fear, feelings of insecurity, anxiety, stress, depression and other negative thoughts have vanished just like a mirage in a desert with the sweet, mesmerizing, fruity and enchanting fragrance of Bergamot oil.

2. Supports nervous functions and boosts brain power:

An article by Robert Tisserand just left me amazed, where a student who have been studying about essential oils for 15 years have noticed the improvement in her husband, a stroke patient especially after the use of Bergamot oil on his pillow.

Robert has also added to this experience by stating that “In one rat study, bergamot essential oil inhibited the damage caused by “focal ischemia” (the same type of damage caused by stroke).” He also says that if any essential oil can be helpful in supporting stroke patients, then it would be Bergamot oil. Various researches state that the molecules of the inhaled essential oils reach the brain through the nasal passages and have effectiveness in treating certain neurological diseases.

A 2009 study on the effect of Bergamot essential oil on brain damage in rats, published in the International Review of Neurobiology, established that “Bergamot oil resulted in a significant reduction of tissue death throughout the brain, especially in the medial striatum and the motor cortex areas.” Few other studies have also proved that Bergamot oil decreases neuronal damage.

Adding 2 to 3 drops of Bergamot oil in your diffuser, vaporizer, pillows, handkerchief or a tissue paper placed beside you can help in improving your blood circulation, augmenting the functions of your nervous system, boosting your brain power and keep you healthy and energized.

Bryan Miller and Light Miller in their book ‘Ayurveda and Aromatherapy’ have shared about the miraculous transformation of their teenage son after the use of Bergamot oil. It was said that one of their sons in high school was undergoing severe depression and after Light Miller started adding few drops of Bergamot oil and Lemongrass oil on his pillow, there was an immediate change in his approach and he successfully graduated.

3. Combats and protects the system from harmful microbes:

The essential oil of Bergamot has anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties that can assist in killing existing microbes and preventing the growth of new microbes. A 2009 study published in the Journal of Applied Microbiology concluded that the blend of Bergamot and Orange essential oil tested against two bacterial strains resistant to vancomycin, proved effective in inhibiting bacterial growths. It was also said that these oils are an excellent alternative to chemical-based bactericides.

Few other studies conducted in Italy proved that Bergamot essential oil exhibited antifungal activity against Candida fungus strains and Prototheca, which is a yeast-like alga. Adding 2 to 3 drops of Bergamot oil in warm bathing water can act as a protective shield against bacterial and fungal infections.

You can also mix 2 drops of Bergamot oil with 2 drops of Orange oil and 2 ml of Coconut oil and apply it on acne, candida infections, athlete’s foot, ringworm, and on wounds for preventing it from becoming septic. Being a disinfectant and antiseptic, Bergamot oil aids in healing wounds quickly.

4. Nourishes the skin enormously:

Just like other citrus oils, Bergamot essential oil has enormous amount of Vitamin C and is extremely good for nurturing the skin. The cicatrisant properties of this oil assist in fading away scars, difficult marks left by pimples, boils and wounds.

Massaging your skin with 1 drop of Bergamot oil, 1 drop of Frankincense oil and 1 drop of Lavender oil along with 1.5 ml of olive oil can help in uniform and even distribution of melanin and other pigments in the skin and granting you a gorgeous look and an enriched skin tone.

With its antiseptic, vulnerary and disinfectant properties, Bergamot essential oil is one among the best oils for treating various skin problems like eczema, psoriasis, cold sores, itching, wounds, cracks, skin ulcers and other skin infections.

A Chinese study on Bergamot oil along with Boxthorn oil on the skin and hair growth in mice, concluded that “the extract increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and collagen in the skin, as well as promoting hair growth.”

5. Aids in shedding your extra pounds:

Obesity or weight gain is an imbalance of kapha dosha, which is characterized by the heavy, slow, cool and sluggish attributes. Such vitiations are often treated with the help of essential oils that have warming, stimulating, energizing and heating energies and Bergamot is among those essential oils for reducing excess fat and water deposits in the system with its kapha-reducing attributes, which otherwise leads to overweight or obesity.

The presence of limonene and other therapeutic properties in Bergamot oil promotes the functional capabilities of hypothalamus, which is the satiety center of the brain. By doing this, the feeling of being full or the natural appetite towards food decreases gradually and controls the cravings for food.

Massaging your system with 5 drops of Bergamot oil, 5 drops of Orange oil, 5 drops of Black pepper oil, 5 drops of Lemongrass oil along with 10 ml of coconut oil can help in reducing your weight slowly and steadily.

6. Helps treat addictions and other off-putting habits:

Bergamot is such a sacred oil that can help in attaining holiness and experience the feeling of oneness with the divine power. Inhaling the sanctified aroma of this oil by adding 3 to 4 drops to your diffuser or scented candle can assist in opening your senses, understanding the universe, granting the power to tackle challenges, and having complete control over your mind and body.

It is for these important reasons, Bergamot essential oil is used in treating compulsive habits, addictions like smoking, use of drugs and alcohol. This oil encourages the mind by opening up the heart chakra, which is responsible for appreciating the love for self and for others.

Other health benefits:

Bergamot essential oil is also effective in treating colic, intestinal worms, rheumatic pain, spasms, fever, irregular bowel movements, body odor, anorexia, constipation, urinary infections, hysteria, hair fall, inflammation and parasitic infections.

Disclaimer:

This information is meant only for educational purposes. It is not intended to diagnose or prevent any health conditions and substitute any other prescribed medications or professional medical advice. We are not healthcare experts and this info is only for bringing the importance of Ayurvedic healing practices under limelight.

Do not make use of essential oils internally and ensure that you always dilute essential oils in appropriate carrier oils before using it for topical applications. This is mainly because organic and unadulterated essential oils are very concentrated liquids and may cause allergic reactions if used on the skin directly. Consult your Ayurvedic practitioner/ healthcare expert before choosing the perfect essential oils for your unique individual constitution or prakriti along with your state of health.

The MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) of Bergamot oil is readily available for your enhanced safety and better usage.

Gas Chromatography Report (GC analysis) of Bergamot oil.

Bergamot Essential Oil – Possible Skin Issues:

bergamot-logoGreener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 – Possible Skin Issues:

See => http://www.essentialdepot.com/GreenerLifeDiamond.html

Bergamot oil has photosensitizing effects. This may cause irritation and burning of the skin, when exposed to visible sunlight after the topical application of this oil up to 72 hours of use. The fundamental reason behind this is the reaction of the photoactive chemical constituents that absorbs light, results in toxicity through molecular changes.

Studies establish that the phototoxic chemical constituents in Bergamot oil are Bergaptene, Bergamotene and other furocoumarins. It is also stated that furocoumarins (Psoralens) attribute to carcinogenic, photomutagenic, phototoxic and melanogenic properties of Bergamot oil.

Interaction of these components with the sunlight obtains the ultra violet radiation (UV rays A and B), which might cause negative reaction on the skin, leading to chronic sunburn, skin irritation, hyperpigmentation, development of skin lesions, Berloque dermatitis, alterations in the cellular structure of the skin that may cause skin cancer, following the development of covalent DNA adducts in UV-A or solar light.

However the International Fragrance Association (IFRA) states that the safe dilution level for the application of Bergamot oil on parts exposed to sunlight is 0.4% (or less), which is about 2.4 drops per ounce of any other carrier oils. Furocoumarin or bergaptene-free Bergamot oils are said to reflect comparatively reduced number of skin complaints owing to phototoxicity, than the natural Bergamot oils.

Surprisingly, Furocoumarins are also remedially used in combination with the long-wave ultraviolet light therapy for the treatment of vitiligo, mycosis fungoides and psoriasis. This caution is relevant to direct skin applications like massage oils, balms, creams and lotions and not for cleansing products like shampoos and soaps.

Reference Links Substantiating Possible Skin Issues of Bergamot Oil:

  1. Assessment report on Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, aetheroleum , by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products, European Medicines Agency
  2. In vitro photostability and photosensitizing properties of bergamot oil. Effects of a cinnamate sunscreen by Morlière P, Hüppe G, Averbeck D, Young AR, Santus R, Dubertret L, published in the Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology
  3. Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics by Ikhlas A. Khan and Ehab A. Abourashed.
  4. Bergamot oil by Drugs.com
  5. Perfume Phototoxicity by Francis N. Marzulli and Howard I. Majbach, presented before the New York Chapter, Clifton, N.J.

Thought for the day:

Nature is relentless and unchangeable, and it is indifferent as to whether its hidden reasons and actions are understandable to man or not. -Galileo Galilei

Suggested Reading:

  1. Bergamot Oil: American Pharmaceutical Association Monograph No. 2 by Donald Davis Mossman, Marston Taylor Bogert
  2. HEALING POWERS OF BERGAMOT OIL (The Aromatherapy Professional: Healing with Essential Oils) by KG Stiles
  3. Citrus bergamia: Bergamot and its Derivatives (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles) From CRC Press
  4. Essential Oils For Weight Loss & Top Essential Oil Recipes: Guide to Essential Oil Recipes (Essential Oils Box Set) (Volume 2) by Lindsey P
  5. Bergamot Essential Oil (Aromatherapy Book 48) by Miriam Kinai

Reference Links:

  1. Bergamot Orange by Wikipedia
  2. Bergamot essential oil by Wikipedia
  3. Health Benefits of Bergamot essential oil by Organic Facts
  4. Essential oils, Stroke patients and Bergamot by Robert Tisserand
  5. Prevention of Glutamate Accumulation and Upregulation of Phospho-Akt may Account for Neuroprotection Afforded by Bergamot Essential Oil against Brain Injury Induced by Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat, by Department of Pharmacobiology and Center of Neuropharmacology of Normal and Pathological Neuronal Plasticity, UCADH, University of Calabria, Italy published in PubMed

Juniper Berry Oil



June and moon pair perfectly to bring in the ideal romance with warm days and clear nights, just like Juniper and its essential oil, known as ‘the mover of fluids’ work wholly to get rid of the toxic remains and excess fluid in your system, so that you fall in love with yourself again and again.

Juniper-berry-banner

Boasted as the best diuretics in Western Herbal Medicine and in Traditional Herbalism, Juniper berries and its essential oil are looked upon for treating various fluid retention diseases like congestion, sciatica, rheumatism, edema, swollen joints, urinary tract infections, lumbago, cystitis, obesity and respiratory conditions.

Hapusha is the Ayurvedic name of Juniper and is scientifically known as Juniperus communis. Juniper is held high in Ayurveda as one among the best detoxifying natural agent with its diuretic and diaphoretic properties for eliminating excess water deposits, toxic remains, uric acid, salt and fat deposits by promoting the frequency and quantity of sweating and urination.

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Historical uses and significance of Juniper berry and its essential oil:

Juniper berries are not real berries but are the female seed cones produced by many species of Junipers. It is an evergreen shrub that is found growing in the wild and can grow up to a height of 30 feet. Juniper is a native of the European Province, Asian subcontinent and few North American countries including Oregon and Texas.

Juniper was the notable symbol of Ashera, the Goddess of Fertility of the Canaanites. The mystical fragrance of Juniper was used as incense by the Scottish and Tibetans to keep away from demons and evil spirits. The first historical use of Juniper berries dates back to the Egyptian Papyrus from 1500 B.C.

The berries of the Juniperus communis species are used as a popular spice in the European cuisine for its unique flavor. It has been used in the treatment of leucorrhoea, scrofula and chest conditions in the traditional French medicine.

It was in ancient Greek medicine, Juniper berries were recorded for their medicinal uses before being stated as a culinary item. The aboriginal Americans used these berries for suppressing the appetite when they were hungry. Certain tribal populace used Juniper berries as female contraceptive agents.

Juniper berries were used as a substitute for long pepper and black pepper varieties by the primordial Romans. It was believed that Juniper berries enhanced physical endurance and vigor in athletes, for which it was used during many of the Olympic events by the people of Greece.

For its power to prevent infections and its antiseptic values, Juniper berries were used as a precautionary medicine during the Bubonic plague. These spicy little berries were used as a folklore remedy for treating urinary infection, chest congestion, stomach upset and warts. Juniper berries are also used as a flavoring agent in gin and other traditional food items.

Remedial properties and chemical constituents of Juniper berry oil:

The notable therapeutic properties of Juniper berry oil are diuretic, energizer, disinfectant, antiseptic, analgesic, carminative, diaphoretic, antibacterial, astringent, anti-rheumatic, antispasmodic, depurative, sudorific, vulnerary, tonic, rubefacient, calmative and stimulant.

The chemical components contributing to its varied remedial values are sabinene, a-pinene, b-pinene, camphene, myrcene, a-terpinene, a-phellandrene, y-terpinene, b-phellandrene, 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, bornyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, caryophyllene along with a hint of borneol, limonene, linalool, nerol, linalyl acetate and camphor.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Juniper berry essential oil:

Ayurveda is unquestionably the Master and the Mother of the world of medicine and has given birth to various remedial sciences including Siddha, Unani, The Traditional Chinese Medicine, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Allopathic, Chiropractic, Acupressure and much more.

The secret behind its majestic stand for about 5000 years is its holistic healing approach that aims in tracing and treating the root cause of an illness rather than its occasional symptoms. Ayurveda completely relies on natural remedies and Ayurvedic techniques for the treatment and the prevention of diseases to pave way for longevity.

The Indian mythology records the birth of Ayurveda as gift of Lord Brahma, the God of Creation to Acharya Dhanvantari, the Lord of Ayurvedic medicine and he was also adored as the Physician of Gods. Ayurveda is a prominent part of Atharvaveda, one of the 4 sacred books of the Hindu tradition of India.

Acharya Charaka and Sushruta added glory to Ayurveda with their greatest works namely Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita, the renowned Ayurvedic encyclopedias. These noble books cover every medical practice from a C-section delivery to Plastic surgery. Everything aims at attaining holistic health, which is a combination of physical, psychological and spiritual wellness.

Ayurveda recommends a disciplined life for retaining absolute balance with nature. Ayurvedic philosophy states that everything in this universe is made up of five elements of nature viz., earth, water, air, fire and space.

Water represents blood and other fluids in the system, earth denotes bones and the muscular built up, air assists in the breathing mechanism, space is the soul/the spirit that dwells in and fire is in charge for body temperature and all other metabolic functions.

All the individuals on earth are created in a distinctive manner with a unique physical, mental and spiritual setup, determined by the individual constitution known as doshas. These dynamic energies are an array of the five fundamental elements of nature.

Vata dosha (air and space) is responsible for the functions of the nervous system, respiratory system and the circulatory system. Pitta dosha (fire and water) takes care of body temperature and metabolism. Kapha dosha (water and earth) and is in charge of the physique, reproductive health and sustenance.

Every person has a prevalence of any one dosha that determines one’s persona, traits and behavioral patterns. Absolute balance between these doshas as per the Law of nature indicates health and imbalance of doshas leads to sickness.

Ayurveda recommends natural remedies including plant essential oils, herbal medications, yogasanas, meditation, prayers, simple physical exercises, Ayurvedic routine, Pranayama (yogic breathing practice), Panchakarma (five detoxification therapies), and certain other Ayurvedic treatments for nurturing natural balance between doshas.

Juniper berry oil helps in pacifying kapha imbalances like rheumatism, urinary infections, congestion and bronchitis; vata imbalances including stress, dysmennorhea and skin problems and enhances pitta energy and supports in the treatment of flatulence, indigestion, abdominal pain, high blood pressure etc.,

It’s time to take a look at the varied health benefits of Juniper berry oil in terms of physical, emotional and spiritual attributes.

  1. Physical benefits:
  • Juniper berry oil to the skin:
  • Juniper berry oil to the joints and kidneys:
  • Juniper berry oil to the digestive system and liver:
  1. Emotional benefits:
  • Alleviates stress:
  • Relieves tension:
  • Widens your creative power:
  1. Spiritual benefits:
  • Instills deep divinity:
  • Augments the power of concentration and inner consciousness:
  • Helps release negative feelings:
  1. Physical benefits: ‘Face is the index of the mind’ is a popular saying. In a much similar way, the human body showcases the sickness of the mind and the soul. Traditional healthcare experts say that every illness has certain underlying emotional and hereditary (tarpana) reasons behind to deal with. Talking with the patient about everything including their medical history, family, daily routine, lifestyle practices, behavioral patterns and every little thing that has an impact in their daily lives, can help in identifying the root cause of their sickness and in bringing a permanent solution to their health problem.
  • Juniper berry oil to the skin: Human skin is the highly structured security mechanism that guards us from the harmful effects of virus, bacteria, fungi and many other harmful micro-organisms. Treating it with ordinary alkaline soaps might spoil the protective layer of the skin formed by sebum (oily and acidic mantel produced by the sebaceous glands).

Ayurveda prescribes Abhyanga or the art of Ayurvedic massaging with the use of essential oils aiding in toning the muscles, relieving muscular tension, protecting the skin and for creating a natural barrier that can protect the skin from the outside forces.

Juniper berry oil has excellent moisturizing properties that help in treating various skin problems like acne, dermatitis and eczema. Skin problems are often associated with the vitiation of vata dosha. Juniper berry oil has the power to pacify excess of vata dosha and helps in the treatment of dandruff and psoriasis.

Three drops of Juniper berry oil blended with 2 drops of Lavender oil, 2 drops of Grapefruit oil added to your mild skin care creams and lotions can help in controlling the excess secretion of sebum, responsible for pimples, blackheads and redness of the skin cells.

A 2003 study on “Antibacterial and Antifungal activity of Juniper berry oil and its selected components” published in Phytotherapy research concludes that Juniper berry oil possesses antibacterial and antifungal activity.

A 2010 study published in “Pharmacognosy Research” by the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran, has confirmed that juniper berries’ essential oil contains excellent antioxidant effects and the capacity to combat destructive free radicals.

Juniper berry oil also has circulatory and tonic properties that nourish the skin cells from within. Massaging the affected parts with 2 drops of Juniper berry oil, 2 drops of Rosemary oil and 2 drops of Geranium oil along with 3 ml of Sweet Almond oil can assist in the treatment of scaly, itchy scalp in dandruff, psoriasis, eczema and inflammatory skin conditions.

You can compliment this massaging with a warm compress for letting the remedial properties of the essential oils to penetrate the skin deeply.

  • Juniper berry oil to the joints, kidneys, digestive system and liver: Stagnation of water deposits, uric acid, salt and toxic remains in the system lead to chronic health conditions like rheumatism, arthritis, edema, swollen joints, dropsy, cystitis, renal calculi or kidney stones and urinary infections.

People with kapha imbalance can benefit highly from Swedhana (Panchakarma treatment for elimination of toxic remains through sweat). Massaging the affected region, especially the knees and joints in case of arthritis and rheumatism with 5 drops of Juniper berry oil, 4 drops of Cinnamon oil, 5 drops of Rose Geranium oil, 5 drops of Eucalyptus oil and 5 drops of Orange oil with 4 ounces of Sesame oil can help in promoting blood circulation in the painful area, reduces pain by causing numbness.

You can reduce inflammation, swelling, redness and soreness of the muscles by using a hot compress. This aids in discarding the toxic remains in the system through sweat and urine by enhancing its quantity and frequency.

Light Miller, in her book “Ayurvedic Remedies: For The Whole Family” has mentioned Juniper berry in numerous healing blends. The most significant among them are listed below for your reference.

  • Obesity or Weight loss blend: Massaging with 10 drops of Juniper berries oil, 10 drops of Grapefruit oil, 10 drops of Orange oil, 5 drops of Birch oil, 5 drops of Black pepper oil, 5 drops of Ginger oil with 4 ounces of Almond oil can assist in treating obesity by eliminating the excess fluids, toxic remains and fat deposits in the system by promoting frequent urination and sweating.
  • Gout: Gently massaging your abdomen with 5 drops of Juniper berry oil, 5 drops of Thyme oil, 5 drops of Cypress oil, 5 drops of Lemon oil, 5 drops of Basil oil, 5 drops of Myrtle oil along with 4 ounces of Coconut oil can help significantly in the treatment of renal calculi, cystitis, and gout.
  • Varicose veins: Varicose vein is a vata disorder caused due to lack of blood circulation, prolonged standing and sedentary lifestyle. Massaging with 5 drops of Juniper berry oil, 5 drops of Cypress oil, 5 drops of Lemon Grass oil and 2 ounce of Olive oil can help in stimulating blood circulation, relaxing the nerves, soothing the tensed muscles and alleviating pain associated with varicose vein condition, lumbago and sciatica.
  • Supports the digestive functions: Juniper berry oil has pitta or digestive fire enhancing attributes with its carminative, stomachic and warming properties. 5 drops of Juniper berry oil along with 2 drops of Ginger oil and 1 drop of Fennel oil to warm bathing water can assist in stimulating the secretion of bile, hydrochloric acid and digestive acids for treating sluggish digestion, relieving intestinal gas and colic pain.
  1. Emotional benefits: Emotions play a vital role in all our lives, without which thoughts are of, nil value. These emotions are often the sound of the soul. The therapeutic and soothing aroma of Ayurvedic essential oils fortifies your energy centers and protects one from being deviated from your life’s purpose.

Juniper berry essential oil has warm, appeasing, woody, earthy, engaging, sweet and energizing fragrance that pacifies the mind and sows the seeds of optimism in the limbic system of the brain. It is the brain’s center of control and is in charge of transmitting commands to the entire body on thoughts, emotions and behavioral patterns.

Juniper berry oil offers various emotional benefits and the most prominent among them are:

  • Alleviates stress:
  • Relieves tension:
  • Widens your creative power:

Mental mayhems are often an output of stressful conditions. Stress can at times work quicker than cyanide in killing the potential of the mind and the brain. It occurs when the mind is occupied or forced with loads of chores than its bearing capacity. As a result, one’s true efficiency and the normal functioning of the brain get disrupted.

Rage, resentment, fear, fatigue, anxiety, tension, lack of concentration and memory loss are few branches of the stress tree.

Inhaling the magical aroma of Juniper berry essential oil by adding 3 drops of Juniper berry oil with 2 drops of Neroli oil to your air freshener or diffuser, especially during the feeling of loneliness or before going to bed or during meditation, can help in bringing back the energy of self-confidence by augmenting your self-esteem.

This blend can also heighten the quality of your thoughts by boosting your creative quotient. 5 drops of Juniper berry oil and 2 drops of Bergamot oil added to your warm bathing water before your bedtime can relax your nervous system, soothe your muscles and induce peaceful sleep at night. Then, what else would stop you from starting a fresh and prolific day?!

  1. Spiritual benefits:
  • Instills the deep divinity:
  • Augments the power of concentration and inner consciousness:
  • Helps release negative feelings:

Juniper berry oil has a pleasant and elevating aroma that instills a feeling of absolute peace and tranquility. Inhaling the sacred aroma of this oil helps in discharging the negative feelings, loneliness, suppressive thoughts and assist in developing intense inner consciousness.

The essential oil of Juniper berry affects the crown chakra, root chakra and the solar plexus chakra. The book “Ayurvedic Remedies: For the Whole Family” by Light Miller quotes “Meditation offers us an opportunity to reach a higher potential by fine tuning our minds. Meditation creates an opening to live a life free of fears, blame, attachments, judgements, stress, negativity and illusions.”

2 drops of Juniper berry oil with 1 drop of Sandalwood oil, 1 drop of Vetiver oil and 1drop of Patchouli oil added to your vaporizer, diffuser, aromatic candles or room freshener during meditation and prayers can be a great soulful remedy.

It can help one to quit addiction, vent out negative feelings, disregard the pain of being abused, alleviate the trepidation of being neglected, deepen your level of thinking, build your bonding with the divine power and augment the connectivity of your soul with the universe.

Disclaimer: This article is meant only for educational purposes and is not recommended to treat or prevent any health condition or to replace any prescription medicines or the medical advice of your healthcare practitioner. We are not healthcare professionals and this information is shared only with the genuine thought of spreading the fragrance of Ayurvedic healing, world’s oldest and the pioneer of all medical sciences on earth.

Use essential oils only for topical application in a diluted form, as organic and pure essential oils are highly concentrated substances and may cause allergic reactions, if used directly on the skin. Never ingest essential oils. Keep out of reach of children.

Juniper berry oil is not recommended for use during pregnancy as it has the potent to induce menstruation. Care should be taken in using this oil under the supervision of a healthcare expert, if you have inflammatory kidney disorders.

Thought for the day:

The trees that are slow to grow bear the best fruit. – By Moliere

Suggested Reading:

  1. Vibrational Healing: Revealing the Essence of Nature through Aromatherapy and Essential Oils by Deborah Eidson
  2. Ayurvedic Remedies- For the Whole Family by Light Miller
  3. Essential Oils for Weight Loss: Easy Ways to Supercharge your Weight Loss Success with Essential Oils by Isla Burroughs
  4. Herbs for Detoxification by C.J. Puotinen

Reference Links:

  1. Juniper Berry by Wikipedia
  2. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of juniper berry oil and its selected components by Natalia Filipowicz, Marcin Kamiński, Julianna Kurlenda, Monika Asztemborska and J. Renata Ochocka, published in Phytotherapy research
  3. Health benefits of Juniper essential oil by Organic Facts
  4. Ayurvedic Remedies: For The Whole Family, by Light Miller