Myristicin

Myristicin is an organic compound present in the essential oil of Nutmeg, Mace, Parsley, Black pepper, Carrots and Dill. It constitutes about 4-8% of the essential oil of Nutmeg.

The chemical formula for Myristicin is C11H12O3. It is also known by other names such as methoxysafrole and Myristicine.

Attributes of Myristicin:

It is a colorless transparent liquid with a spicy smell.

The therapeutic attributes of Myristicin includes hepatoprotective, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and anti-proliferation of cancerous cells, psychoactive and anti-cholinergic effects.

Hepatoprotective effect:

Myristicin found in Nutmeg offers protection to the liver. This attribute of Myristicin was focused in the study titled “Hepatoprotective effect of myristicin from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) on lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced liver injury.”

This study was carried out on rats suffering from liver injury caused by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and d-galactosamine. It was found that Nutmeg exhibited significant protection to the liver and its main constituent, Myristicin showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity by inhibiting the release of TNF-alpha from macrophage.

Antimicrobial activity:

Myristicin shows antibacterial activity. In the study ‘Antibacterial principles from Myristica fragrans seeds’, the antibacterial effect of the constituents of the essential oil of nutmeg, namely myristicin, trimyristicin and Myristic acid were evaluated. It was determined that trimyristicin, Myristic acid and Myristicin exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against selected gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

In the research article ‘Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt)’, it was mentioned that Myristicin is one of the important constituents of nutmeg that is responsible for the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of nutmeg.

Anti-inflammatory effect:

Myristicin is characterized by its anti-inflammatory properties. This attribute of Myristicin was discussed in detail in the study “Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Myristicin on RAW 264.7 Macrophages Stimulated with Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid.”

This study revealed the anti-inflammatory effect of Myristicin which is accomplished by the inhibition of Nitric oxide, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in dsRNA – stimulated macrophages through the calcium pathway.

Antioxidant:

A study titled “Evaluation of antioxidant activity of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oil and identification of its antioxidant constituents” was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the essential oil of parsley and its constituents. It was brought into light that the essential oil of parsley showed antioxidant effect and its main constituent Myristicin presented a reasonable antioxidant effect.

Cytotoxic:

Myristicin exhibit cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cell line. Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer occurring outside the cranium of the brain. In the research article “Myristicin-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells”, the cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Myristicin on Neuroblastoma cells in humans were evaluated. It was unveiled that Myristicin was cytotoxic to Neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells by stimulating the apoptotic mechanism in the cells.

Rhabdomyosarrcoma (RD) is a type of soft tissue cancer in childhood and in teenage years. Myristicin from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) is cytotoxic to Rhabdomyosarrcoma cell line which is focused in the study ‘Cytogenetic study of the pure myristicin from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) on habdomyosarrcoma cell line (in vitro).”

Further, in another study labelled ‘Antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activity of Athamanta sicula L. (Apiaceae)”, it was demonstrated that Myristicin present in the essential oil of the herb Athamanta sicula L. displayed anti-proliferative activity against human cancer cells in blood, lungs and breast namely blood cancer cells K-562, lung cancer cells NCI-H460 and breast cancer cells MCF-7.

Psychoactive:

Myristicin is considered to be one of the psychoactive component of nutmeg that alters the functioning of the brain bringing changes in attitude, insight and consciousness. This is evident from the study “Toxicity of Nutmeg (Myristicin): A Review”.

In another article “Myristica fragrans: An exploration of the Narcotic Spice”,it is stated that the psychoactive effect of myristicin is because of its metabolism into 3-methoxy 4, 5-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MMDA), which is a psychoactive compound.

Anti-cholinergic effect:

Myristicin in nutmeg was found to possess anticholinergic effect by constraining the psychological action of neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and in the peripheral nervous system. This attribute of Myristicin was stated in the study “Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Myristicin on RAW 264.7 Macrophages Stimulated with Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid.

Reference Links:

  1. Myristicin by Wikipedia
  2. Hepatoprotective effect of myristicin from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) on lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced liver injury.
  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Myristicin on RAW 264.7 Macrophages Stimulated with Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid.
  4. Myristicin-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells
  5. Cytogenetic study of the pure myristicin from nutmeg (myristica fragrans) on habdomyosarrcoma cell line (in vitro).
  6. Toxicity of Nutmeg (Myristicin): A Review

Best Christmas Gift Idea 2012: Adoring Ayurvedic Essential Oils

Are you thinking ‘What is wrong with me?’ wondering what’s the need for Christmas gift idea now, while there are still 4 full months for December 25th to knock your door? Come on! This is scorching summer season and to think about something that will enchant your mind, chill your senses and hearten your spirits will certainly be a brilliant idea and nothing else other than Christmas Eve has the glory to splash such joy on you. Sounds great now….. Right!! This is the right time to start your Christmas count down. Every year Christmas is exceptional in its special way. This year, you make it out of the ordinary by gifting your loved ones with warm and healing Ayurvedic essential oils rather than your usual gifts.

Your 2011 Christmas might not have been the same as your 2008 Christmas. You might have missed your loved ones or there might have been a new member to your family last year (baby!), much more adventure and a variety of gifts and that is what Christmas is all about. Make your 2012 Christmas outshine all the other festive seasons that you’ve passed in your lifetime with a wonderful pack of sensational essential oils that can take your entire family out of this world. Yes! There are certain mind-blowing Ayurvedic essential oils that suit everyone and can be used all through the year till the next Christmas comes by your way. Such enlivening essential oils are:

  1. Lavender essential oil: According to me ‘Lavender is the queen of all essential oils’ and is my all-time favorite. How can anyone keep themselves away from this magnificent oil with a mystique fragrance in it? Fill your love in a bottle full of Lavender essential oil that can uplift the spirits and refresh the mind. Wow! The wonderful color, the exuberant aroma, immense health benefits and numerous therapeutic properties like nervine, sedative, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antiseptic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic, anti-convulsant and many more make Lavender very special at all the good times and sick times too!
  2. Ylang Ylang essential oil: Nothing can be so very romantic, tender, quixotic, passionate and magical like the transfixing fragrance of Ylang Ylang essential oil. This oil has emmenagogue, sedative, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, hypotensive and antidepressant properties that alleviates pain, supports mood fluctuations, controls high blood pressure, aids in frigidity problems, brings down rapid heartbeat and treats your senses.
  3. Rose essential oil: Shakespeare rightly said that ‘Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose’. Very popularly known as the symbol of love all around the universe, Rose essential oil can give you the joy of being together in a garden full of fresh, fragrant roses. Rose oil has been proven effective in treating various health conditions with its aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antiviral, antidepressant, antiphlogistic, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, uterine, bactericidal and nervine properties.
  4. Grapefruit essential oil: Grapefruit oil with its light and fresh aroma is trusted to have great effects in shedding the extra pounds of the body. Any weight loss program with essential oils cannot get fulfilled without Grapefruit essential oil. It is also an excellent skin toning agent and natural skin purifier.

Apart from these essential oils, you can also include Peppermint essential oil, Sandalwood essential oil, Sweet orange essential oil or Jasmine essential oil as per the preference of your near ones.

Love is known only when it is shown. Express your unconditional love this Christmas season with the never-ending bliss of these Ayurvedic essential oils gift pack. There’s nothing to get surprised if the love of your life asks for one the next Christmas also. Wait and watch!!!

Merry Christmas and let it be a Mesmerizing Christmas as well.

Reference links:

  1. Christmas by History.com
  2. Health benefits of Rose essential oil by Organic facts
  3. Ylang Ylang – The Great Benefits by Ylang Ylang Essential Oil

Geranyl formate

Geranyl formate is found in the essential oils of Geranium, Rose, Lemon, Orange and Clary sage.

Geranyl formate is an ester with the chemical formula C11H18O2. The alternative names of Geranyl formate are Geranyl methanoate; Geraniol Formate; Formic acid; geraniol ester and so on. It is insoluble in water but it mixes well with ether, ketone and fixed oils.

Attributes of Geranyl formate:

Geranyl formate is a colorless to slightly yellow liquid. It is characterised by a fresh green aroma that is closer to the aroma of rose.

Flavor and fragrance ingredient:

It is used for its green flavor in flavor and fragrance compounds. Geranyl formate is used in the flavors of lemon, red apple, water melon, peach, pear and green beans.

Therapeutic attributes of Geranyl formate:

Antifungal activity:

Geranyl formate exhibit antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. This attribute was focused in the study titled “Antifungal Activity of Rose-Scented Geranium (Pelargonium Species) Essential Oil and its Six Constituents”.

This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal activity of the essential oil of Geranium and its main constituents, namely, citronellol, geraniol, isomenthone, geranyl formate and citronellyl formate.

It was found that all the constituents that are mentioned above showed antifungal activity against candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, which are the causal organisms for diseases like candidiasis and cryptococcosis in human beings.

Hepatoprotective effect:

A study on “The hepatoprotective effects of dihydromyrcenol and geranyl formate in an experimental model of acute hepatic injury induced by the use of carbon tetrachloride” was carried out to evaluate the ability of dihydromyrcenol and geranyl formate to protect the liver from damage.

When Geranyl formate was administered at low doses to rats that have injuries in the liver caused by carbon tetrachloride, it exhibits partial hepatoprotective effect and at high doses, it never present any hepatoprotective effect.

Insecticide:

Geranyl formate acts as an effective insecticide against Stephanitis pyrioides and the larva of Aedes aegypti. This was evident in the study “Insecticidal and biting deterrent activity of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.) essential oils and individual compounds against Stephanitis pyrioides and Aedes aegypti.”

Reference Links:

  1. Geranyl formate by PubChem
  2. Antifungal Activity of Rose-Scented Geranium (Pelargonium Species) Essential Oil and its Six Constituents
  3. The hepatoprotective effects of dihydromyrcenol and geranyl formate in an experimental model of acute hepatic injury induced by the use of carbon tetrachloride
  4. Insecticidal and biting deterrent activity of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.) essential oils and individual compounds against Stephanitis pyrioides and Aedes aegypti