Heeng Oil (Asafoetida)

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Heeng-bannerAsafoetida is seen as an archaic remedy for flatulence, colic and other digestive disorders but the truth is that this ‘Food of Gods’ is still boasting its potent of treating various disorders from toothache to impotency for more than 5,000 years, where it’s use has been documented in Ashtanga Hridaya, which is one of the ancient text of the world’s oldest healing science known as Ayurveda.

Highly carped for its pungent aroma, Asafoetida has never failed in adding that extra spice to numerous traditional dishes in various countries including India, Europe, North Africa and the United States.

Known as Rāmaha, Badhika and Sahasravedhi in Sanskrit, Heeng and its essential oil has been prescribed in the Ayurvedic medicine for treating flatulence, whooping cough, painful menstruation, premature ejaculation, impotency, diabetes, asthma, intestinal worms and toothache.

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Historical importance of Heeng (Asafoetida):

Asafoetida is native to Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. Botanically known as Ferula assa-foetida, it is a member of the Apiaceae plant family and the commercial part used is the oleo-gum resin extracted from the thickened roots and rhizomes. It is also known by other famous names like hing, narthex, heeng, food of Gods, devil’s dung, haltheeth, giant fennel, ting and stinking gum.

Ayurveda quotes “Asafoetida is a grounding herb that can therefore balance an overactive, over emotional, turbulent system“. It was one among the common herbs prescribed for the treatment of hysteria. It was used in 1918 to combat the Spanish influenza pandemic. It was also used as a topical remedy for relieving abdominal injuries.

Heeng is a popular spice all over the world and is used as a digestive aid, flavoring agent and as a condiment in food varieties and in pickles. It is used in daily food preparations in India especially by the followers of Vaishnavism, Jainism and by the merchant caste. Asafoetida was the most prevalent folk remedy for treating flatulence, colic and cold in children and as a contraceptive medicine.

The Arabian pharmacists and scientists like Avicenna, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi and Ibn al-Baitar have talked about the positive effects of Asafoetida on digestive system and the respiratory system. It is used in magic spells in the African-American Hoodoo tradition for its power to protect as well as to curse.

Asafoetida is also used in the Jamaican culture for protecting babies from evil spirits. The Jewish literatures like Mishneh Torah and Mishnah have also talked about this spice.

Chemical constituents and therapeutic properties of Heeng oil:

The remedial properties of Heeng essential oil are nervine, carminative, aphrodisiac, vermifuge, abortifacient, antispasmodic, stimulant, anti-flatulent, antimicrobial, analgesic, antiseptic, anti-epileptic, fertility enhancer, contraceptive, anthelmintic, expectorant, bronchodilator and emmenagogue. The major chemical constituents are phellandrenes, α-pinene, hendecyl-sulphonyl acetic acid, ferulic acid and ethers of sesquiterpenes with coumarines like farnesi feroles.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Heeng (Asafoetida) oil:

Asafoetida is a promising Ayurvedic remedy for treating digestive and respiratory disorders for thousands of years. Known as the oldest of all the healing systems on earth, Ayurveda is the mother of all medicinal practices in the world having its roots deeply vested with India, the world’s oldest historical tradition.

Ayurveda is considered as the only healing methodology that considers human body as a temple where the real soul dwells in. It also states that Mother Nature is made up of five vital elements namely fire, water, earth, air and ether. Being a part of Nature, human beings are also made up of these five fundamental elements that pair together and form the biological energies called as doshas.

Just like an individual’s fingerprints, each one of us on earth has a unique individual constitution that comprises of these three doshas namely vata, pitta and kapha. Vata is a representation of air and space and is responsible for respiration, nervous functions, circulation, excretion and creativity.

Pitta stands for fire and water and is accountable for digestion, absorption, metabolism and thinking capacity. Kapha represents water and earth and is in charge for structure, movement of fluids, sustenance and love.

Every individual has a dominance of any one of these doshas and it determines their characteristics, temperament and behavioral attributes. Balance between these doshas indicates health and imbalance causes illnesses. Ayurvedic remedies are prescribed in a such a manner to set right these doshic imbalances.

Heeng and its essential oil in Ayurveda is said to increase Pitta energy and balance vata and kapha dosha with its pungent taste and enormous healing properties. In the Ayurvedic text Ashtanga Hridaya Su Chapter l it is mentioned that “Asafoetida mitigates vata and kapha, relieves flatulence and colic pain. It is pungent taste and at the end of digestion. It aggravates pitta, enhances appetite, taste and digestion. It is easy to digest”.

The major Ayurvedic health benefits of Heeng oil are:

Heeng-broucher

1. Benefits to the digestive system:

Just by hearing the word ‘Asafoetida’ anyone in India would just say that it is the best natural remedy for treating flatulence, colic and indigestion in children as well as elderly people. With its anti-flatulent, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, Heeng essential oil aids in relieving from abdominal gas, stomach pain, intestinal gas and bloating.

It cleanses the intestinal flora and augments the digestive fire. By this way it eliminates all kinds of stagnation in the gastrointestinal tract, relieves cramping and drives out intestinal gas. The strong herbaceous aroma of this oil assists in soothing the lining of the stomach and intestines, reducing distention, treating spasms and increasing the appetite.

Gently massaging your tummy and abdomen with 2 drops of Asafoetida oil blended with 1 ml of sesame oil will be of great help in treating all types of stomachic and intestinal problems in a comforting manner.

You can also add 1 drop of Heeng oil to warm bathing water or to diffuser in the dining hall to stimulate the process of metabolism and for enhancing the stamina, as this oil is known to nurture the earth element that is responsible for strength and vigor.

Asafoetida is used as a traditional medicine for treating constipation and flatulence in 60% people of Jammu and Kashmir, India and this wonder herbal medicine lessens the development of indigenous microflora in the gut, thus helping in reducing flatulence. It has also been used in western medicinal system as a topical remedy for treating abdominal injuries since the 18th century.

2. Benefits to the respiratory system:

Heeng and its essential oil is an ancient folk remedy for treating cold especially in children. This is mainly due to its antimicrobial and expectorant properties along with its ability to reduce kapha dosha, which is responsible for excess phlegm and mucous deposits causing cold and other respiratory problems.

Add 2 drops of Heeng oil to steam inhalation or to vapor rub and massage it on your chest, neck and back for expelling mucous and phlegm deposits in the bronchial, nasal and respiratory passages. Asafoetida has antimicrobial values that arrest the growth of infectious organisms that worsen cold and cough and pave way for chronic respiratory conditions.

It has been proven effective in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, chest congestion, whooping cough and other respiratory problems. There are numerous home remedies with Asafoetida for treating respiratory disorders and various other health conditions.

One popular home remedy with Heeng is mixing half teaspoon of asafoetida powder with fresh betel leaf juice and white onion juice along with honey every day for treating whooping cough, bronchitis and asthma.

A 2009 study on ‘Influenza A (H(1)N(1)) Antiviral and Cytotoxic Agents from Ferula assa-foetida’ have proved the effectiveness of Asafoetida in combating the harmful effects of H1N1 virus with its antiviral and cytotoxic elements. This study concluded that Asafoetida exhibited greater potency against influenza A virus and against HepG2, Hep3B, and MCF-7 cancer cell lines, correspondingly.

3. Benefits to the reproductive system:

Asafoetida addresses male and female reproductive problems in a natural way. It is known to cure impotency, premature ejaculation and spermatorrhoea in men by increasing the libido and it also acts as an effective aphrodisiac.

Mix 2 drops of Heeng oil with 1 ml of olive oil and gently massage on your lower abdomen or add 1 drop of this oil to your bathing tub before going to bed. Regular use of this therapy can show effective results as the therapeutic molecules present in this oil penetrate deeply into the system through the skin and stimulate the male reproductive system.

Heeng as a powerful herb and a strong essential oil has emmenagogue properties and has been in use as a natural contraceptive. It will be of great assistance in treating dysmennorhea or painful menstruation, excessive bleeding, irregular or delayed periods, leucorrhea, nausea, fatigue, anxiety and other symptoms associated with menses.

The best way to use Heeng oil for menstrual discomforts is by massaging your lower abdomen with 2 drops of this oil mixed with 1 ml sesame oil or add it in a hot compress for improved results.

As a contraceptive or abortifacient, Heeng oil can be used in treating unplanned abortion, sterility in women and premature labor. It is also effective in improving the quality and quantity of breast milk in nursing women. Using Asafoetida in post-pregnancy period is recommended for relieving colic, indigestion and other digestive difficulties in both the mother and the baby.

4. Benefits to oral health:

Human mouth has the highest possibilities of being affected by millions of micro-organisms that not only cause hazards to oral health but also to the entire body. Heeng essential oil has potent antimicrobial and antiseptic properties that aids in treating toothache, bleeding gums, bad breath or halitosis and harmful cavities.

Add 1 drop of Heeng oil in a cup of warm water and use it as a gargle for getting rid of various oral problems. You can also add 1 drop of this oil to a piece of cotton and dab it on your aching tooth for immediate relief.

5. Benefits to the entire system:

Asafoetida and its essential oil are beneficial to the entire system in a number of ways. It has been proven effective in stimulating the pancreatic cells to secrete more insulin as improved insulin levels are known to bring down the blood sugar levels to normal.

According to certain studies, the antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of Asafoetida curbs the growth of malignant cells causing cancerous tumors. Since the ancient times, this condiment has been used as a powerful antidote for opium as it is identified to counter the effect of the ingested drug.

Asafoetida is defined as ‘Tamasic’ in Ayurveda for its properties of resistance, dullness, inertia and darkness on the mind and it can balance the over emotional, hyperactive and chaotic system.

This condiment is also used as a pesticide and insecticide for protecting crops from pests and for repelling mosquitoes and certain other insects.

Disclaimer:

This article is only for informational purpose and is not directed to diagnose or replace any prescribed medicines or professional medical advice. Never take essential oils internally and always dilute essential oils before using it topically. This is because organic and pure essential oils are highly concentrated liquids and can cause allergic reactions if used in an undiluted manner.

Remember to consult your Ayurvedic practitioner before choosing the most suitable essential oil for your unique constitution and health condition. Avoid using Heeng oil if you are a pregnant woman as it has strong abortifacient properties.

Thought for the day:

Deep in their roots, all flowers keep the light. -Theodore Roethke

Suggested Reading:

  1. Ayurveda & Aromatherapy: The Earth Essential Guide to Ancient Wisdom and Modern Healing by Dr. Light Miller, Dr. Bryan Miller
  2. Ayurvedic Healing Cuisine by Harish Johari
  3. Herbs: An Inside Look Into The World of Alfalfa, Basil, Asafoetida, Burdock, Catnip and More by Vanesa Payne
  4. The Yoga of Herbs: An Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine by David Frawley, Vasant Lad
  5. Alternative Medicine: The Definitive Guide by Burton Goldberg Group

Reference Links:

  1. Asafoetida by Wikipedia
  2. Asafoetida (Hing) Benefits by Speedy Remedies.com
  3. Asafoetida by The Spices Board India
  4. Asafoetida – A Grounding Herb by American Botanical Council
  5. Influenza A (H(1)N(1)) Antiviral and Cytotoxic Agents from Ferula assa-foetida by Lee, CL; Chia-Lin Lee, Lien-Chai Chiang, Li-Hung Cheng, Chih-Chuang Liaw, Mohamed H. Abd El-Razek, Fang-Rong Chang, Yang-Chang Wu, College of Pharmacy, China published in PubMed

Ashwagandha Oil

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Aswagandha-bannerStand tall like a stallion and hold your head up with the strength and inevitable power of Ashwagandha, the most potent and revitalizing herb of the Ayurvedic healing. Often called as ‘Indian Ginseng’ for its enormous and instant energizing attributes, the word ‘Ashwagandha’ means the ‘smell of horse’, as the fresh roots have a horse-like odor.

Ayurvedic writings record the usage of this vital herb as a rasayana, meaning tonic for alleviating extensive range of illnesses from cancer to impotency. Dr. M. Ali in his book ‘Ashwagandha – The Stress Buster’ quotes Ashwagandha as an anti-stress herb with curative, relaxing, preventive, restorative and sedative properties and has the power to alleviate stress, the silent killer and the root cause of many problems including strokes, impotence, heart attacks, blood pressure, depression and stomach ailments.

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Historical uses and significance of Ashwagandha herb and its essential oil:

Lovingly called as ‘Winter cherry and Indian ginseng, Ashwagandha is botanically called as Withania somnifera and is a member of the nightshade or Solanaceae plant family. The word ‘somnifera’ means ‘sleep-inducing’ and Ashwagandha is known for its potential to promote sleep and has been used in the treatment of insomnia.

Indigenous to the Indian subcontinent, Ashwagandha is one among the most popular herb in the history of Ayurvedic healing. Few sources also state that this herb is native to Africa, Australia and the Eastern parts of Asia. Ashwagandha is also found growing naturally in Sri Lanka and Pakistan.

Ashwagandha has been used for more than 4,000 years in the world of traditional medicine, including Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Siddha, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Unani. The tribal populace in Africa is said to have used this herb initially in the treatment of inflammatory medical conditions and fevers.

Ayurvedic use of Ashwagandha has been documented in the Ayurvedic texts like Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita and certain records also state that Ashwagandha is popular since the sacred teachings of the Ayurvedic Rishi, Punarvasu Atriya. Ashwagandha is recommended in Ayurveda for longevity, physical and mental wellness of the aged, reproductive health and as a brain tonic for children.

The Ashwagandha root paste has been applied for treating joint inflammation, swelling, ulcers, pimples, piles, carbuncles, boils, colic and leucorrhoea. Traditional remedies also prescribe this powerful root in treating venomous snake and insect bites, including scorpion stings. It is used in the Middle East countries for its ability to support normal sleep patterns and persuade a strong inflammatory response.

Used as a Rasayana or natural tonic in Ayurveda, Ashwagandha has been a promising Ayurvedic remedy for rheumatism, insomnia, arthritis, impotence, loss of libido, improper blood circulation, constipation, goiter, nervous breakdown, fatigue and depression. The most common use of this herb since the traditional times is for the encumbrance from old age and emaciation of children.

The leaves of this plant bear a bitter taste and have been used in curing fever, swellings, tubercular glands and tumors. Numerous research studies have witnessed the power of Ashwagandha in the treatment of respiratory problems, cardiovascular diseases, loss of energy along with psychological and physical stress. Chyawanprash is one among the most popular Ayurvedic blend with Ashwagandha, Amla or the Indian Gooseberry and numerous other herbs.

Chemical constituents and remedial properties of Ashwagandha essential oil:

The therapeutic properties of Ashwagandha essential oil are anti-stress, adaptogenic, aphrodisiac, astringent, antioxidant, rejuvenative, anthelmintic, tonic, diuretic, stimulant, anti-rheumatic, antibacterial, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-arthritic, cardio-protective, immunomodulatory and anti-depressant.

The major chemical components in Ashwagandha essential oil are alkaloids (anaferine, isopelletierine, anahygrine, cuseohygrine, etc.), steroidal lactones (withaferins, withanolides) and saponins.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Ashwagandha essential oil:

Ayurveda is precisely called as the Mother of all the other healing sciences on earth for its enormous holistic healing principles that aim in healing and preventing illnesses for more than 5,000 years.

Acharya Dhanvantari, known as the Ayurvedic God of medicine and physician of Gods is said to have gifted Ayurveda for the wellness of humanity. Ayurveda is a part of Atharvaveda, one amongst the 4 sacred books or Vedas of the Indian mythology.

Ayurveda is the only medicinal system that considers human body as a temple and the soul that lives in is regarded as the symbol of divinity. With this thought of nobility, Ayurveda recommends mankind to keep their mind, body and soul clean, happy and content.

The principles of Ayurveda rely on nature for everything as it strongly trusts that everything on earth is a vital part of nature. The visible proof behind this theory is that all things in nature are made up of five basic elements of nature, namely fire, water, earth, space and air.

Human body is also made up of these five elements, where earth is present in the form of bones and muscles; water represents blood and fluids in the system; air is vital for breathing; space is the soul that dwells in and fire is the essential energy for body temperature, metabolic functions and certain other vital activities of the system.

Ayurveda never goes by the fact that ‘one size fits all’, as it trusts that every human being is a distinctive part of nature composed with a unique individual constitution known as prakriti. It is a combination of three biological energies called as doshas. They are vata, pitta and kapha. Every individual has a predominance of any one of these doshas that acts as a deciding factor in determining the character, personality, attributes and behavioral patterns.

Absolute balance between these doshas as per the law of nature indicates health and doshic imbalances due to climatic conditions, lifestyle changes, irregular food habits and moral vitiations lead to illness.

Ayurvedic healing aims at treating the root cause of an illness instead of its symptoms alone. This aids in curing the disease initially and preventing it in the future as well. Ayurveda prescribes natural remedies that go well with the individual constitution of a person, even if a group of people are affected by the same medical condition.

The prime Ayurvedic remedies are plant essential oils, simple physical exercises, herbs, yoga, prayers, Pranayama (Ayurvedic breathing exercises), meditation, Abhyanga or Ayurvedic massaging, Panchakarma or Ayurvedic detoxification techniques and Ayurvedic routine.

Ashwagandha essential oil is said to pacify vata and kapha doshas and increase pitta energy.

It’s time to look into the most significant Ayurvedic health benefits of Ashwagandha essential oil.

Aswagandha-broucher1. Combats cancer causing free radicals:

Ashwagandha is a miraculous Ayurvedic herb that possesses antioxidant and anti-tumor properties that aid in combating the harmful free radicals and curb the growth of cancerous tumors in the system. The anti-antigenic attribute of this natural medicine helps in preventing the malignant tumors from creating new blood vessels for assisting its uncontrolled growth.

Being an immune-stimulant and rejuvenating essential oil, Ashwagandha strengthens the immune system, aids in resisting the effects of chemotherapy and supports quicker recovery. Many research studies have witnessed the cancer inhibiting potential of Ashwagandha, which works by controlling the ability of reproducing of the cancer cells.

A 2006 study on the “Ancient medicine, modern use: Withania somnifera and its potential role in integrative oncology.” By Winters, states “with its polypharmaceutical use, confirming antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulating, and antistress properties in the whole plant extract and several separate constituents, Withania somnifera reduces tumor cell proliferation while increasing overall animal survival time.”

This study concludes by stating “Withania somnifera also reduces the side effects of chemotherapeutic agents cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel without interfering with the tumor-reducing actions of the drugs. With its cytotoxic and tumor-sensitizing actions, Withania somnifera presents itself as a novel complementary therapy for integrative oncology care.”

Ayurveda prescribes the use of Ashwagandha oil in Abhyanga or Ayurvedic massaging for treating cancerous disorders. Massaging your system with 10 drops of Ashwagandha oil blended with 5 drops of Parsley seed oil, 5 drops of Turmeric essential oil, 5 drops of Tangerine oil along with 25 ml of coconut oil can grant innate energy to your cells for fighting against free radicals and controlling the growth of cancerous cells.

The cancer-fighting attributes of Ashwagandha oil along with Parsley, Turmeric and Tangerine oils pass on to the bloodstream by penetrating through the skin cells and work on effectively without causing any side effects. You can also add 1 drop of Ashwagandha oil along with 1 drop of Frankincense oil to your warm bathing water for leaving you fresh and fragrant all through the day.

2. Alleviates arthritis and rheumatic problems:

According to Ayurveda, aggravation of vata and excess of kapha dosha contribute to vulnerable medical conditions like rheumatism and arthritis. With its ability to reduce kapha vitiation and treat vata aggravation, Ashwagandha is one among those best Ayurvedic remedies for alleviating pain, swelling, inflammation and other discomforts associated with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions.

When used as a massage oil (3 drops of Ashwagandha oil + 2 drops of Rose Geranium oil + 2 drops of Tarragon oil with 5 ml of Sesame oil), Ashwagandha penetrates deeply into the system and aids in relaxing the muscles, strengthening the bones and nourishing the tissues.

This also helps in instilling complete relaxation in the nervous system, promote blood circulation, reduce muscular pain, and alleviate inflammation by promoting the frequency of urination and opening of the sweat pores through which the toxic remains, salt and uric acid in the body are eliminated.

The tonic, analgesic or pain-reducing, diuretic, anti-rheumatic, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and relaxant properties of Ashwagandha oil makes it a great natural remedy for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid and muscular problems, used often by athletes, dancers and body builders. Using 2 drops of Ashwagandha oil in warm compress can support the healing process.

The pain-relieving potential of Ashwagandha oil is often compared to popular pain-relieving agents in the pharmaceutical industry like aspirin and phenylbutazone. This oil is also believed to prevent inflammation and muscular strains, grant flexibility to the muscles and vigor to the joints.

3. Enhances immunity and energy levels:

A healthy immune system is the basis for longevity and heartiness. The disease-fighting or resisting ability of a person is determined by his immune power. The white blood cells (WBC) or leucocytes in the body are cells of the immune system are also known as the police force of the body. These cells are involved in shielding the human body against foreign bodies and infectious diseases.

Leucocytes are present all over the body, including the lymphatic system and blood. Ashwagandha oil has the power to strengthen the immune system by increasing the count of leucocytes or white blood cells.

This promising herb is also called as the ‘Ojas enhancing’ herb with plethora of remedial values.

Ayurveda defines ojas as the subtle or cultured level of energy gained from healthy food. Required level of Ojas in the system is a symbol of well-built immunity, inner consciousness, healthy complexion, mental clarity, hale and heartiness and physical wellness. Decreased ojas or Ojakshaya is an indicator of low immune power as it is in a person affected by HIV.

Ashwagandha is held high in Ayurvedic medicine for its effectiveness in enhancing ojas. This in turn helps in augmenting immune power, keeping away from infections and diseases and aids in recovering quickly from sickness, while rejoicing absolute health and wellness.

Adding 1 drop of Ashwagandha oil with 1 drop of Sandalwood oil and 1 drop of Vetiver oil in diffuser, vaporizer or burner during prayers, meditation and Pranayama can help in augmenting the Ojas, strengthen your immune system, help retain youthfulness, revitalize the senses, relieve from fatigue and insomnia, prevent aging and invigorate the entire system.

The uniqueness of this blend is that all these 3 oils are known for their power to enhance the innate wisdom and kindle your sense of sacredness and divinity.

4. Boosts memory functions and alleviates Alzheimer’s disorder: Ashwagandha is popularly known as a Rasayana in Ayurveda and is said to belong to a sub-category called as Medhyarasayanas, where the word ‘Medhya’ refers to the human mind and its intellectual and cognitive powers.

Ashwagandha essential oil has the ability to wrestle the fall in cognitive levels caused due to brain cell degeneration. It also assists in reducing cortisol levels and enhancing cognition levels.

Inhaling the aroma of this oil by adding 1 drop of Ashwagandha oil with 1 drop of Brahmi oil and 1 drop of Rosemary oil in diffuser especially in the early hours of the day during meditation, yoga, prayers and learning can promote the functions of the brain, augment your memory power, increase your intellect and help fight against Alzheimer’s disease.

5. Fights against stress, depression and other negative feelings: The adrenal glands in the endocrine system are responsible for a person’s ability to manage stress and stress-related negative effects. When a human body is stressed, the adrenal glands augment the level of cortisol secretion.

Cortisol is called as the stress hormone of the system that is related to the ‘fight or flight’ response of the body. This hormone is responsible for the production of negative effects in the body like lack of concentration, fatigue, weak memory, anxiety, mental exhaustion, sleeplessness, pain, anger, weight gain, especially in the abdominal area and lack of interest.

The presence of the bioactive compounds called glycowithanolide in Ashwagandha aid in reducing the cortisol levels in the body. Glycowithanolide is a type of steroidal lactone that imitates the body’s own relaxing and stress-alleviating hormones. This works by decreasing cortisol levels in the system to strike absolute balance in the body.

Ashwagandha essential oil has adaptogenic, stimulating, relaxing, mood enhancing, stress-reducing, nervine, sedative and rejuvenative properties that help in treating insomnia by promoting peaceful sleep, alleviating fatigue, cardiovascular problems, depressive feelings, cognitive dysfunction and low immunity.

Numerous scientific studies on the anti-stress and adaptogenic effects of Ashwagandha oil have concluded that this herb is a powerful Ayurvedic remedy for treating and preventing stress and stress induced health conditions including premature graying, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, malignancy, diabetes and arthritis.

Adding 5 drops of Ashwagandha oil with 5 drops of Lavender oil and 5 drops of Patchouli oil along with 20 ml of Jojoba oil in a massage blend can help in reducing stress, fatigue and sleeping difficulties.

You can also add 2 drops of Ashwagandha oil in warm bathing water or air freshener before going to bed to enjoy the richness of a relaxed mind and a comfy sleep.

6. Tones the skin and hair health:

Ashwagandha has vata-pacifying properties that help in retaining the natural glow and suppleness of the skin. The antioxidant effects of this oil combat the growth of free radicals that are responsible for causing aging symptoms like wrinkles, fine lines, dark spots, blemishes and dullness.

The essential oil of Ashwagandha is also an excellent remedy for healing wounds, keratosis, inflammation, skin ulcers, carbuncles, swelling, cuts, bedsores etc. It is also used for moisturizing rough and dry skin with its collagen stimulating attributes.

This is mainly due to the presence of steroidal compounds that enhance the level of estrogen in the body. This aids in augmenting the natural levels of oil in the skin and promote the production of collagen, which in turn retains the young and healthy looking skin. Ashwagandha oil is also known for its ability to promote the secretion of structural protein vital for the skin.

Gently applying 2 drops of Ashwagandha oil with 2 drops of Bitter orange oil, 2 drops of Frankincense oil along with 5 ml of Jojoba oil on the affected parts can help in repairing the skin problems without any harmful effects.

Healthy and lustrous hair is the most prized jewel of mankind, especially women. Ashwagandha has been the secret behind the long, shiny and voluminous locks since the traditional times. Slightly warm the blend of 3 drops of Ashwagandha oil with 2 drops of Ylang Ylang oil, 2 drops of Rosemary oil, 2 drops of Lemon oil and 2 drops of Lavender oil along with 20 ml of Almond oil.

Slowly massage this Ayurvedic hair oil onto your scalp and hair for strengthening the hair follicles, clearing scalp problems like dandruff and itchy scalp, fight hair loss, prevent premature balding, graying and hair breakage due to increased cortisol levels.

It also helps in treating damaged hair and dandruff by flushing out the excess toxins in the system. Adding 2 drops of Ashwagandha oil to your regular shampoo is also an excellent idea to support the health of your hair and scalp.

7. Augments reproductive health:

Ashwagandha is the most powerful aphrodisiac known to humanity since the dawn of the Ayurvedic era. Physicians of various traditional and modern medicines claim Ashwagandha as the most promising and potent aphrodisiac on earth.

With its immune and ojas enhancing abilities, Ashwagandha is said to grant the vigor and vitality of a horse in human beings as well. As an influential adaptogen, Ashwagandha uplifts the system’s defense mechanism against various disease causing infections by augmenting the cell-mediated immunity. It also curbs all kinds of cellular damage caused by free radicals with its antioxidant values.

Ashwagandha promotes a healthy balance of the reproductive system by increasing the quality of semen and count of sperms, thus expanding the possibilities of fertility and conception.

It is also recommended by Ayurvedic professionals for treating loss of libido, impotence, premature ejaculation, lack of sexual interest, erectile dysfunctions and supports the ability to last longer in bed.

It is also prescribed for treating reproductive problems in women like infertility, white discharge, weak uterus, polycystic ovarian syndrome and certain other gynecological disorders.

Ashwagandha is also effective in strengthening the uterine walls, ovaries and ligaments to support pregnancy. Ayurveda also states that this herb helps in improving the quality of the egg or ovum.

The most impressive aphrodisiac blend can be prepared at home with 2 drops of Ashwagandha oil with 2 drops of Patchouli oil, 2 drops of Jasmine oil, 2 drops of Clove oil and 2 drops of Ylang Ylang oil with 50 ml of coconut oil. Gently massage your system with this Ayurvedic blend for supporting your active sexual life and healthy reproductive system.

Adding 2 drops of Ashwagandha oil in warm bathing water and your vaporizer, before going to bed can add up the spice to your intimate love.

Thought for the day:

I believe a leaf of grass is no less than the journey-work of the stars.

Walt Whitman

Suggested Reading:

  1. Ashwagandha & Brahmi – Fight stress and chill out with the king and queen of Ayurvedic medicine by James Lee
  2. Healing with the King: Ashwagandha: The Master Herb in Ayurveda Medicine (Learning about Medicinal Herbs within India’s Ayurvedic Medicine Book 4) by Ryder Management Inc.
  3. Herbs for Stress & Anxiety: How to Make and Use Herbal Remedies to Strengthen the Nervous System. A Storey Basics® Title by Rosemary Gladstar
  4. Ashwagandha, Stress and Anxiety Herb – Health Educator Report #37 by C.N.C. Billie J. Sahley Ph.D.
  5. Ashwagandha – the stress buster by Dr. M. Ali

Reference Links:

  1. Withania somnifera by Wikipedia
  2. An Overview on Ashwagandha: A Rasayana (Rejuvenator) of Ayurveda Narendra Singh, Mohit Bhalla, Prashanti de Jager, and Marilena Gilca, International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM), published in the African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines
  3. Health Benefits of Ashwagandha or Indian Ginseng by Organic Facts
  4. How Ashwagandha can be used as sexual rejuvenator by Ayurvedic and Natural Home Remedies for a healthy living
  5. Ancient medicine, modern use: Withania somnifera and its potential role in integrative oncology by Winters M, published in the Alternative Medicine Review.

Ajowan Oil

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Ajowan is a spicy little wonder that has colossal healing values and has been recognized as a ‘hub of remedies’ by the most commendable medical geniuses of the world like Acharya Charaka, Dioscorides, Galen, Sushruta and Avicenna.

Ajowan-bannerHave you ever chewed the fresh peppery Ajowan leaves? If not, I would strongly recommend you to do that when you come across such an amazing opportunity. Yes! I’ve tasted those zesty leaves and the instant newness and direct energy that it transfers to your soul and your system is simply out of the world!!!

Highly acclaimed as one among the best digestive aid for its excellent carminative properties, Ajowan or Ajwain has been a part of the Indian traditional regimen and is also used as a popular spice. Botanically termed as Trachyspermum Ammi or Trachyspermum copticum, Ajwain resembles cumin, fennel, caraway and smells like thyme.

Called as Yamani or Dipyaka in Sanskrit, Ajwain and its essential oil have been used in Ayurvedic medicine for treating digestive disorders, gastro-intestinal problems, bronchitis, pharyngitis, asthmatic attacks, impotency, rheumatic pain, migraine, amenorrhea, ulcer and chronic cough. It has also been employed as a powerful respiratory stimulant and tonic for the heart and kidneys.

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Historical significance and uses of Ajowan and its essential oil:

Ajowan is an herb of absolute marvel since the pre-historic period in various traditional provinces of the world like the Indian traditional medicine, including Ayurveda, the Greek traditional medicine and the Persian traditional medicine, including Unani.

The brownish gray fruit pods or seeds of this plant are regarded for nutritional and medical uses. Ajowan is found growing extensively in India, Iran, Pakistan, Egypt, Afghanistan and few other Mediterranean countries.

Ajowan is often the most cherished herb in the Ayurvedic medication for its positive effect on the digestive system, respiratory tract, plasma, nervous system and the bone marrows.

Known as ‘Ajwain Ark’ in Ayurveda, Ajowan or Omam water, the medicated tonic extracted from these seeds is often an instant remedy for addressing diarrhea, colic, indigestion, atonic dyspepsia, cholera, indigestion and flatulence. Due to its mild and proven effectiveness, this medicated water is recommended for everyone including babies and aged people.

Even today, Ajowan oil and other remedial extracts of these little seeds are used in many parts of India, Pakistan, Iran and many other medieval provinces for treating earaches, stomach problems, difficulties in digestion, menstrual disorders, breathing problems and urinary infections.

The oil of Ajowan is an important source of thymol, the most powerful therapeutic ingredient known for its antiseptic, antimicrobial, anesthetic and pain-relieving qualities. It is for this property, Ajowan seeds were exported in large quantities to USA, Germany and many other European countries before the World War I and during the World War II.

Chewing Ajowan seeds with betel leaves have been suggested in the traditional and folklore medicine for treating dry cough, dyspepsia and flatulence. Mixed with hot water, these seeds are effective in treating chest pain, nasal congestion, bronchitis, whooping cough, cold, sore throat, pharyngitis and asthma.

Mixed with butter milk, Ajowan is acclaimed as the best digestive aid for stomach upset and indigestion. Few Ajowan seeds with honey for a week have been recommended for alleviating pain and urinary infections associated with kidney stones.

The Traditional Persian Medicine has used Ajwain seeds since the pre-historic period as an aid for curing earaches, paralysis, liver spleen, abdominal cramps, renal calculi, pleurisy, leucoderma, chronic fever, cough, neurological disorders, nausea and reflux. It was also used as an aphrodisiac, antidote for numerous toxic agents along with various pharmacological uses.

Ajowan seeds are also used for culinary purposes, especially for its enhanced effect on promoting quicker digestion.

Therapeutic properties and chemical components of Ajowan oil:

As mentioned earlier, Ajowan is a hub of various nutrients and its resulting remedial values. These seeds contain iron, calcium, thiamine, niacin, carotene, riboflavin, phosphorus and fiber.

Ajowan essential oil extracted from these seeds through steam distillation process possess about 50% of thymol along with dipentene, carvacrol, p-cymene, a-terpinene, limonene, a-pinene, styrene, b-phyllanderene, carvone and dillapiole.

The promising therapeutic attributes of Ajowan oil are carminative, anti-bacterial, diuretic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, nematicidal, antiviral, germicidal, anti-hypertensive, anesthetic, antiseptic, anti-ulcer, stimulant, aphrodisiac, bronchodilatory, antitussive, hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, expectorant, anti-platelet, antihyperlipidemic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal, anthelmintic, antioxidant, spermicidal and estrogenic.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Ajowan essential oil:

Ayurveda is the most popular and the most thriving talk of the town, especially in the Western world. This world means “the knowledge or science of life”.

The initial traces of Ayurvedic science is said to have its existence for more than 5,000 years and has been an influencing medical system for all other healing sciences on the globe including the Traditional Chinese Medicine, Unani medicine, Homeopathy, Chiropractic, Acupressure, Siddha and the medicinal writings by Hippocrates, Avicenna and many more.

Ayurveda is a part of Atharvaveda, one among the 4 Vedic or sacred books of the Indian tradition. It was further illuminated with the writings of the ancient Ayurvedic physicians, Acharya Charaka and Acharya Sushruta, namely Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita and Ashtanga Hridaya.

These Ayurvedic encyclopedias throw light on the management and the therapeutic information of a vast pool of health conditions, where the most complex caesarean delivery and plastic surgery methods were talked about before thousands of years, sans the existence of modern medical equipments or clinical methodologies.

Celebrated as the most comprehensive healing system in the world, Ayurveda simply states that illness is the symbol that the body is not in harmony with nature. Disharmony with the natural environment ends up in diseases. Ayurvedic system of healing focuses on re-establishing the self’s harmony with that of the environment, where the root causes of the diseases are diagnosed and it is prevented in the future as well.

Every individual and every disease is regarded as a unique entity in Ayurveda as it is a common-sense science that follows the principle that no two persons or no two diseases are the same. As no illness affects two people in the same way, Ayurveda believes that no two remedies are exactly alike. So every individual and every disease in an individual is treated in a unique manner.

Ayurvedic healing attempts to understand the nature of a person, the nature of the disease and the nature of the medication. This philosophy states that everything in this world including human beings are made up of five elements namely space, earth, water, air and fire.

Every individual has a unique individual constitution known as prakriti and is determined during the conception of the child itself. It is a combination of 3 biological energies or doshas namely vata (space and air), pitta (fire and water) and kapha (water and earth). These doshas are a representation of the five elements.

Every person has a predominance of any one of these doshas and it acts as the determining factor for an individual’s personality, character and behavioral traits.

Absolute balance between these doshas indicates health and heartiness. Doshic imbalances and inequalities within the body due to various factors like the lifestyle of a person, changes in habits, environment, food, climatic conditions and indulgent activities are thoroughly learned before prescribing medications.

Ayurvedic therapies include the prescription of herbs, Ayurvedic essential oils, yoga, simple physical exercises, meditation, Ayurvedic routine, Panchakarma or the detoxifying technique, Abhyanga or Ayurvedic massaging, prayers and certain other lifestyle changes.

Ajwain is an excellent Ayurvedic remedy for pacifying kapha and vata doshas and augments pitta dosha. ‘Ajwain ka phool’ is a famous Ayurvedic remedy in India where the crystallized Thymol is said to heal numerous illnesses.

The key Ayurvedic health benefits of Ajowan essential oil are:

Ajowan-Banner-psd1. Potent cleanser and a promising digestive aid:

Ajowan is a time-tested natural remedy for treating digestive problems ranging from flatulence to intestinal parasites. The essential oil of Ajowan has proven anthelmintic and nematicidal properties that help in curtailing the growth of intestinal parasites and other harmful pathogens that affect the normal functioning of the digestive system.

A 2012 study on “Trachyspermum ammi” by Ranjan Bairwa, R. S. Sodha, and B. S. Rajawat School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, published in PubMed, NCBI has witnessed that the “Anthelmintic activity of T. ammi shows its effect against specific helminths, e.g. Ascaris lumbricoides in humans and possess cholinergic activity with peristaltic movements of the gut, thus helping in expulsion of intestinal parasites.”

It further reports that the presence of thymol and carvacrol constituents in Ajowan essential oil is responsible for its nematicidal activity, thus proving its effectiveness against PWN bodies (Pinewood Nematode bodies that mainly cause problems like Pine Wilt disease).

Ajowan essential oil also has fungicide, microbial and germicide properties that make its use inevitable in the healing of ailments like intestinal dysbiosis. The most advantageous fact is that it curtails the growth of harmful pathogens without disturbing the helpful flora in the digestive system.

The digestive stimulant, carminative, anti-ulcer, anthelmintic, antispasmodic, antimicrobial, anti-flatulent, detoxification and gastro-protective properties of Ajowan oil add true colors to its digestive benefits.

Abhyanga or the ability of maneuvering the human body through massaging in an Ayurvedic manner is one among the best ways to use essential oils for therapeutic purposes. This is due to the known fact that skin is the largest organ of the human system and any kind of medication applied to the skin easily penetrates and reaches the blood stream, where the remedial process is transmitted in a jiffy.

Massaging your abdomen with 2 drops of Ajowan oil along with 2 drops of Dill seed oil in a blend of 2 ml of Sesame oil can help in cleansing the microbes in the stomach and intestines, stimulate digestion, relieve flatulence and gas pain, eliminate toxic remains and alleviate distention and ulcer pain.

Inhaling the spicy aroma of this strong herbal oil by adding 1 drop to your hankie or added to your diffuser can enhance your appetite, help reduce nausea and stimulate the secretion of gastric acids, bile and other digestive juices. You can also add 2 drops of Ajwain oil in warm bathing water for enhancing the bowel movements and for soothing the digestive system.

2. Trusted remedy for cholera and diarrhea:

Ajowan has gentle effects on the stomach lining and the intestinal walls, for which it has been recommended since the pre-historic period even for tender babies to relieve colic, stomach pain, diarrhea and vomiting.

Ajowan water is the first thing that comes to rescue in almost all the traditional Indian families for dysentery, diarrhea and colic pain as it immediately arrests the sickening loose stools.

The antimicrobial, antifungal, soothing, stimulant, anti-colic and antifilarial effects of this wonder herb aids in soothing the intestines, regularizing the bowel movements, lessening pain and killing the harmful microbes and other foreign bodies responsible for such digestive mayhems.

Gently massage your tummy with 2 drops of Ajowan oil with and 2 drops of Caraway oil along with 2 ml of coconut oil for relieving from chronic colic, diarrhea, nausea, intestinal infections, pain, dysentery and the early stages of cholera. 1 to 2 drops of Ajowan oil added to warm or cold compress can also support the healing process.

3. Relieves asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory conditions:

As a highly rich source of macro as well as micro-nutrients, Ajowan essential oil supports the body in withstanding the attack of seasonal health problems like flu, cough, cold and fever.

Ajowan has expectorant property that aids in relieving cough and cold while supporting in the elimination of mucus and phlegm deposits in the lungs and the respiratory passages. This assists in treating asthma, bronchitis, chronic cold, whooping cough and many such respiratory conditions.

A 2013 study on “An Overview of Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) Pharmacological effects; Modern and Traditional by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran published in the Journal of Natural Remedies”, states that Ajowan seeds possess antitussive and bronchodilatory effects.

The results of various studies in this regards prove that “Ajwain seeds revealed significant reduction of cough number which may be a result of its potent antitussive effect” and “the relaxant and bronchodilatory effect of essential oil fractions may be due to the amount of Carvacrol and it has a relatively bronchodilatory effect on asthmatic airways compared to the effect of Theophylline concentrations used”.

Adding 2 drops of Ajowan oil in steam inhalation can help you sweat out all your toxic remains in the body along with the microbes worsening your respiratory problems. It does this so spontaneously with its enormous diaphoretic values that increases perspiration and promotes the discarding of toxins through the skin.

Massaging your foot soles with 2 drops of Ajowan oil mixed with 1 drop of Black Cumin Seed oil and 1.5 ml coconut oil can work like a magic in reducing your fever with its antiseptic, febrifuge and immune-enhancing properties.

Mixing 1 drop of Ajowan oil in a cup of warm water and gargling with this medicated water has been proven effective in relieving toothache, hoarseness of voice, sore throat, pharyngitis along with infectious and congested throat.

Gently massaging your forehead, throat, chest and back with 2 drops of Ajowan oil blended with 1 drop of Clove oil and 1 drop of Thyme oil and 2 ml of Sweet Almond oil can help in relieving the symptoms of cold including runny or stuffed nose, itchy and watery eyes, headache, chest or nasal congestion, fatigue and breathing difficulties.

This also aids in promoting good sleep as the therapeutic agent, Thymol present in Ajowan oil works like an anesthetic agent that fights against bacteria, virus and fungal infections and enhances the body’s relaxing mechanism.

4. Dissolves kidney stones and treats urinary infections:

Ajowan is simply an excellent Ayurvedic essential oil for relieving pain and other discomforts of kidney stones and infections caused in the urinary system.

Ajowan has enormous cleansing values with its diuretic and lithotriptic properties. Adding 2 drops of Ajowan oil in warm bathing water along with massaging your lower abdomen and back with 4 drops of Ajowan oil mixed with 2 drops of Cumin oil and 5 ml of sesame oil increases the frequency and quantity of urination through which the toxic remains, salt, fat, uric acid and other harmful substances causing urinary infections and renal calculi are eliminated.

This also helps in influencing the normal functions of the urinary bladder and kidneys, which support in dissolving the formation of calculi or stones in the kidneys and gall bladder. Half teaspoon of powdered Ajwain seeds along with 1 teaspoon of pure honey taken in empty stomach every morning for two weeks regularly is a folklore remedy for treating urinary problems and renal calculi.

5. Alleviates rheumatic pain and inflammatory conditions:

According to Ayurveda, rheumatism is often a vitiation of kapha dosha. It ends up in amassing of excess water in the system glued with toxic remains, salt, fat deposits, uric acid and free radicals, especially in the joints. As a strong and warm essential oil, Ajowan has kapha reducing attributes that helps in draining out the excess deposits of water along with its detrimental remains through sweat and urination.

Free radicals are generally caused by the oxidation of bio molecules including carbohydrate, lipid, protein, and nucleic acid. These free radicals trigger chain reactions within the cellular structure and are often the reason behind cellular damage, leading to chronic health conditions like rheumatism and cancer. Antioxidants protect the cells from damage by fighting against these free radicals.

A 2013 research on “Evaluation of antioxidant activity of essential oil from Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) seeds by the Department of Biotechnology, The IIS University, SFS, India, published in the International Journal of Green Pharmacy substantiates “the essential oil of Ajwain could contribute as a highly significant bio resource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life in food and pharmaceutical industry”.

With its diuretic properties, Ajowan oil enhances the quality and quantity of urination through which the accumulated water deposits in the joints and muscles are discarded. Massaging the affected parts with 5 drops of Ajowan oil along with 2 drops of Thyme oil, 3 drops of Fennel oil and 5 ml of Evening primrose oil can aid in relieving pain with its enormous analgesic properties and combat against the toxic remains in the system, thus helping in the treatment of arthritis and rheumatic conditions.

6. Normalizes the heart functions:

Ajowan as a herb is a powerful heart tonic and a proven pain killer. Grandmother’s traditional remedy for heartache and certain other heart problems includes Ajowan seeds, where 1 teaspoon of these stimulant seeds are recommended for use along with hot water for relieving heart pain and for promoting the normal functions of the heart.

Ajowan is said to contain thymol compound and vitamin niacin, both of which are known to regularize the functioning of the heart, called as the center of the human functions. Massaging your chest area with 2 drops of Ajowan oil blended with 1 ml of coconut oil can promote health blood circulation in the heart by enhancing the functions of the nerve impulses.

7. Supports the reproductive system:

Ajowan seeds and its essential oil are known for its excellent health benefits for both the male and female reproductive system. With its established aphrodisiac properties, Ajowan oil is known for enhancing virility and the secretion of estrogen and progesterone hormones.

It was used as a cleansing Ayurvedic remedy for rinsing out the uterus during the post-delivery period. Massaging your lower abdomen, thighs and around your genital area with 2 drops of Ajowan oil mixed with 2 ml of Jojoba oil can stimulate the secretion of reproductive hormones in both men and women and promotes blood circulation in the reproductive system.

This can aid in treating premature ejaculation, impotence, loss of sexual interest, lower count and quality of sperm in men. This is also said to treat female reproductive problems like menstrual menaces including painful periods, excessive bleeding, female infertility, blocked or irregular menstruation and menopausal problems. It was also used as a galactogogue for promoting the secretion of milk in nursing mothers.

Adding 2 drops of Ajowan oil to your bathing tub or to your diffuser, especially during the night time relieves fatigue, mood fluctuations and sleeping difficulties. Isn’t it a great idea to fuel up your monotonous life? Yes it is!!!

Other health benefits:

Apart from these major remedial uses, Ajowan and its essential oil are recommended in traditional medication for treating inflammatory conditions, paralysis, diabetes mellitus, neuralgic pain, venomous bites, acidity, amenorrhea, liver problems, earache, skin problems like ringworm, blackheads, pimples, rashes and scars and certain other health conditions.

Disclaimer:

This information is only for the use of education and is not meant to treat or diagnose any health condition or substitute any professional advice or prescribed medications. We are not Doctors or other medical professionals and this article is an outcome of our study on the internet and books. It is shared only to enlighten the glory of the world’s oldest healing system, Ayurveda, also acclaimed as the Mother of all medical sciences on earth.

Never ingest essential oils. Topical application is recommended in a diluted form as direct use on the skin may cause allergic reactions, mainly because of the fact that unadulterated and organic essential oils are highly concentrated liquids. Care should be taken if you are a nursing mother or carrying. Keep out of reach of children.

It is always advisable to seek the guidance of your Ayurvedic physician or healthcare expert before choosing the appropriate essential oils for your unique individual constitution and medical condition.

Thought for the day:

Dreams are the seeds of change. Nothing ever grows without a seed, and nothing ever changes without a dream. – Debby Boone.

Suggested Reading:

  1. Ayurvedic Medicine: The Principles of Traditional Practice by Sebastian Pole
  2. Antioxidant Properties of Spices, Herbs and Other Sources by Denys J. Charles
  3. Healing through Ayurveda Herbs: in your kitchen garden by Dr Sonica Krishan
  4. The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: The Complete Guide to the Use of Aromatic Oils In Aromatherapy, Herbalism, Health, and Well Being by Julia Lawless
  5. Practice of Ayurveda by Swami Sivananda

Reference Links:

  1. An Overview of Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) Pharmacological effects; Modern and Traditional by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran published in the Journal of Natural Remedies.
  2. Phytochemistry, Pharmacological studies and Traditional benefits of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprague by S. N. Dwivedi, R. P. Mishra and Sangeeta Alava, A.P.S University, India, published in the International Journal of Pharmacy and Life Sciences.
  3. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of essential oil from Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) seeds by Sreemoyee Chatterjee, Nandini Goswami, Neha Kothari, Department of Biotechnology, The IIS University, SFS, Gurukul Marg, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, published in the International Journal of Green Pharmacy
  4. Trachyspermum ammi Ranjan Bairwa, R. S. Sodha, and B. S. Rajawat School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, published in PubMed, NCBI.