Cucumber Oil

Will you be delighted or dreary if someone beckons you, “As Cool as a Cucumber”? I would rather recommend you to take pride when somebody calls you with that phrase because it simply means the attitude of being calm, composed and in absolute control of your emotions, even if a particular situation demands your aggressiveness and anger.

Cucumber-bannerThis is because Cucumber is one among the coolest fruits as scientific facts state “the inside temperature of a Cucumber can be up to 20 degrees cooler than the outside air”, besides growing well in tropical conditions.

Called as Kantakiphalam, Svetakarahatakam, Mutralam and Sudhavasah in Sanskrit, Cucumber is commonly called as Kheera in the traditional healing methodology.

Proudly representing India as its Motherland, Cucumber has been a part of the ancient Ayurvedic regimen in the treatment of rheumatic conditions, constipation, urinary disorders, cholera, wrinkles, dandruff, arthritis, vaginal infections, loss of appetite, duodenal ulcer, erectile dysfunctions, high cholesterol, eczema and hyperacidity.

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Historical uses and importance of Cucumber and its essential oil:

Cucumber, as far as its history is known to the world is said to be a 3,000 years old fruit variety of the gourd family, cucurbitaceae. Besides its use in culinary, Cucumber has been preferred for raw eating, mainly for its cool, mild and enhancing flavor.

This cylindrical fruit is a powerhouse of various nutrients, for which it has been used in various civilizations across the world including the Rome, Israel, Greek, Egypt, The United Kingdom, France, China, and USA. The three famous varieties of this creeping vine are pickling, slicing and burpless cucumbers.

Cucumbers are absolutely edible and are found across the globe, all around the year but the high seasonal growth curtails to May – August. Pliny The Elder, the Roman philosopher quotes that Cucumber is the most favorite fruit of the Roman Emperor, Tiberius. His gardeners grew cucumbers using artificial methods, just to ensure that the king had cucumbers on his table every day.

It is being said that cucumbers were used in the primordial Roman province for treating more than 40 medical conditions, including scorpion stings, blurred vision, frigidity, high blood pressure and diabetes.

The Biblical reference of cucumber goes like this “We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely/the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic.” After which the Israelites started cultivating cucumbers by themselves.

Certain sources state that cucumbers were brought to Haiti in 1494 by Christopher Columbus and were cultivated by the early Spanish settlers. South and North Dakota boasts for owning the finest cucumber farmers of Native America.

These fresh and refreshing fruits are often used in making salads (Indian raita), sauces, pickles, cold soups, sausages, chutneys, lamb chops, relishes and dressings. Cucumber and its essential oil are also used in the manufacturing of soaps, moisturizing lotions, anti-dandruff shampoos, conditioners and skin care creams, especially anti-aging products, for its nourishing properties.

Therapeutic properties and chemical constituents of Cucumber oil:

The oil of Cucumber contains about 14 to 20% of oleic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid and 60 to 68% of omega-3-linoleic acid. It also contains potassium, silicon, cucurbitacins, sulphur and certain fatty acids like 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrienoic acid and 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid.

Cucumber oil has antioxidant, diuretic, anti-rheumatic, anti-ulcer, relaxing, antidote, rejuvenating, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous, tonic, anti-dandruff, and laxative properties. It is rich in Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, and C along with magnesium, calcium, phosphorous, zinc, iron and folic acid.

Next time, when you are exhausted and drained out, stop sliding on toxic caffeine drinks, instead grab a Cucumber and bank upon it for all your nutritional requisites.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Cucumber oil:

Ayurveda and Cucumber share the mutual joy of being indigenous to India, the land of rich cultural heritage. This oldest healing science on the globe states that everything on earth is made up of the five vital elements of nature, namely fire, water, earth, space and air.

Among which the living things on this planet acquires prana, the vital energy of life and ojas, and the nutritive quintessence from Mother Earth. While animal and human beings utilize prana and ojas for vitality and livelihood, plants grab ojas and prana from the ground and renovate them as food, herbal medications and essential oils for the absolute well-being of all other organisms.

The greatest news about the nobility of plants and trees are that they capture enormous life force and spiritual energy straight from the space by constantly looking up to the sky. Thus, any source of food or medicines acquired from plants instills the purest form of energy directly to our soul. It is because of this reason; we call invigorating plant fragrances (especially from essential oils, the life essence of plants) as soulful aromatic substances.

Cucumber is a bundle of joy and instant coolant that refreshes everyone even on a bright sunny day. It bears all the heat in the atmosphere, yet remaining absolutely cool in the inside makes it a special fruit with enormous healing attributes and nutritional values. India, being a country of tropical climatic conditions, rests upon Cucumber to quench its thirst and no Indian summer is complete without Cucumbers on the street.

Being a complete traditional remedy, Ayurveda regards health as a combination of physical, emotional and spiritual wellness and this ideology is based upon its philosophy of considering the human system as a place of worship or temple.

Ayurveda believes that the soul vested within each of us connects with Divinity and this connection or synchronization is the rationale behind hale and heartiness.

Ayurveda says that every individual is made up of three distinct doshas (vata, pitta and kapha) or biological energies. The most predominant among the three doshas acts as a deciding factor for your personality, character and behavioral traits.

Imbalance of any one of these doshic elements end up in health problems signaling that the body is out of balance with nature.

Imbalance of vata dosha can end up in memory loss, lack of concentration, fear, insomnia, dry skin, restlessness and constipation. Pitta unevenness might lead to disgust, ulcer, anger, heartburn, high blood pressure, jealousy, fever and skin ulcers.

Fluid retention, toxic remains, congestion, sluggishness, delayed menstruation, uterine fibroids, obesity and procrastination are the results of Kapha vitiation.

Cucumber oil has pacifying effects on pitta and kapha dosha. The cooling and refreshing properties of this oil can help in treating high blood pressure, heartburn, ulcer, fluid retention, skin eruptions, constipation and stress.

Cucumber is absolutely a treat for the four senses of healing, whereas its lucid green color soothes the sense of sight, it’s refreshing taste energizes the sense of taste, its cooling properties penetrate deeply into the skin to transfer its therapeutic values through the sense of touch, it’s refreshing aroma reaches the limbic system in the form of aromatic molecules to control emotions.

The other significant Ayurvedic health benefits of Cucumber oil are:

Cucumber-oil1. Augments skin health and supports radiating complexion:

Cucumber oil has stupendous revitalizing and nourishing properties that help in treating dull, damaged or mature skin conditions. The presence of linoleic acid and oleic acid in cucumber makes it an excellent aid for skin problems including acne, blackheads, sunburns, psoriasis, eczema and certain other inflammatory skin conditions.

The antioxidant properties of cucumber oil are attributed to the significant existence of tocopherol and tocotrienol substance along with the three lignans including secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol and pinoresinol. These elements make Cucumber oil powerful in fighting against the free radicals responsible for aging symptoms, skin damages and several types of cancer, including ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and uterine cancer.

Massaging your skin with 10 drops of Cucumber oil blended with 2 drops of Orange oil and 4 ounce of coconut oil can help in retaining the natural moisture in the skin, repair dry and dull skin surface, treat eczema, psoriasis, rough, scaly and mature skin, reduce wrinkles, aging symptoms and skin eruptions.

A 2011 study on “Exploring Cucumber Extract For Skin Rejuvenation” by Naveed Akhtar, Arshad Mehmood, Barkat Ali Khan, Tariq Mahmood, Haji Muhammad Shoaib Khan and Tariq Saeed, Department of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur and the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan, Published in the African Journal of Biotechnology, states that cucumber extract has been proven extremely beneficial for the skin.

These experts also say that Cucumber extracts have passed the maximum number of dermatological tests including skin melanin test, skin erythema test (safety of cosmetics), pH tests, skin moisture content test, skin sebum content test, and trans epidermal water loss test.

This study concludes stating that this was a preliminary initiative in exploring the unknown effects of Cucumber as a topical cream for skin rejuvenation.

It also states that cucumber extracts aid in reducing the melanin content (responsible for skin pigmentation and complexion); has anti-acne effects with its potent to decrease the content of skin sebum.

This study also declares that these analyses have proved to be capable in the context of prospective topical applications of cucumber extract (with its varied skin care properties), as cosmetics, skin-care items and in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical preparations.

You can also add 2 drops of Cucumber oil in a cup of cool water and wash your face for locking the moisture and fight against acne causing micro-organisms.

2. Combats dandruff and explores the natural shine of your locks:

Bouncy, strong, silky and dandruff-free lustrous locks are the dream of many women out there. Men are not an exception though, in longing for healthy hair that is free from hair loss, dandruff and other scalp conditions.

Cucumber is one among those natures’s richest owner of the minerals like silica and sulphur, of which sulphur is known for promoting hair growth and silica fortifies the hair follicles and protect from breakage and loss of hair. Silica is an essential element for supporting the health of connective tissues like skin, muscles, ligaments and bones.

The moisturizing properties of Cucumber oil helps in hydrating the scalp and aids in reducing dryness, itchy and flaky scales on the scalp surface and nourishes the scalp and roots of the hair from within.

Massaging your scalp with 5 ounce of Cucumber oil mixed with 5 drops of Rosemary oil and 5 drops of Brahmi oil and leaving it for 1 hour by wrapping a warm towel (helps the medicated blend to penetrate deeply into your scalp) can assist in reducing dandruff, replenishing the scalp, enhancing the luster of your hair and prevent excessive hair fall. You can also add 5 drops of Cucumber oil in your mild shampoo for fastening the natural moisture in your hair for a longer duration.

This blend can be applied by the swimmers before their swimming voyage in the chlorinated and chemical filled water. This helps in preventing the hair damage naturally.

3. Helps control high blood pressure, cholesterol and diabetes:

Certain studies witness that the presence of sterols in Cucumbers may help in reducing the high level of cholesterol, while the presence of fiber, magnesium and potassium assists in treating high blood pressure. Cucumber also stimulates the secretion of insulin hormones in the pancreas, thus assisting in the treatment of diabetes.

Eating fresh cucumber daily along with adding 5 drops of Cucumber oil in your liquid soap can help in vitalizing your cells and augment your energy levels.

4. Soothes the digestive system, thus helps in treating ulcers and halitosis:

Cucumber oil has the power to soothe and pacify pitta dosha. The excess of which would end up in overindulgence of digestive fire leading to ulcer, high blood pressure, acidity, heartburn, acne, negative emotions, feelings of rage, insomnia, acne and certain other skin eruptions.

Massaging your abdomen and chest with 10 drops of Cucumber oil blended with 2 drops of Peppermint oil can help in cooling the digestive system (intemperance of digestive fire) by soothing the lining of the stomach and intestines. Using 2 drops of Cucumber oil in warm gargle can assist in fighting against bad breath with the presence of phytochemicals.

5. Flushes out toxins and aids in treating rheumatic and inflammatory conditions:

Cucumber has enormous amount of ascorbic acid, contributing to its diuretic properties. This moisture-rich oil helps in replenishing the system with its anti-rheumatic, antioxidant and diuretic properties by flushing out the excess fluid deposits, toxic remains, salt, uric acid, free radicals and fat deposits in the system, which is often responsible for inflammatory conditions like gout, rheumatism, arthritis, swelling, redness, obesity and puffy eyes.

Massaging the affected parts with 5 ounce of Cucumber oil with 5 ounce of Sweet Almond oil can help in promoting frequent urination, thus eliminating toxic remains, free radicals, salt, fat deposits and uric acid, which helps in reducing swelling, skin irritations, muscular soreness, pain, redness and muscular stiffness associated with rheumatism and arthritis.

Pranayama or the art of balanced breathing can help highly in expelling ama or excess toxic substances in the system, where all these toxins are discharged through exhalation.

Inhaling the refreshing fragrance of Cucumber by adding 2 drops of this oil in your air freshener, especially during Pranayama and meditation can grant quicker relief by releasing your mind and body from toxic emotional blocks and harmful toxins in the system.

Other health benefits:

Cucumber is also helpful in treating vaginal itching, erectile dysfunctions, heart problems, renal calculi, cancer therapy, dark circles, urinary infections, cholera, and cellulites.

Disclaimer:

This piece of information is meant only for the purpose of information and is not recommended to treat or prevent any kind of medical conditions. It is not meant to replace any prescription medicines or the advice of a medical professional. We, the team of Essential Depot are not experts in Remedial practices or Traditional medicine and these facts are shared only for spreading the greatness of Ayurveda in treating mankind.

Essential oils are recommended only for topical applications and do dilute essential oils in suitable carrier oils before using it on the skin. Never ingest essential oils as absolutely pure and organic essential oils are highly concentrated substances and may cause allergic reactions, when used internally or on the skin without dilution.

Speak with your Ayurvedic expert or medical professional before choosing the right essential oils for your state of health and unique individual constitution. Performing a patch test on your skin before enjoying its complete benefits is an amicable advice.

Thought for the day:

Green is the prime color of the world, and that from which its loveliness arises.

– By Pedro Calderon de la Barca.

Suggested Reading:

  1. Cucumber Recipes by Jackie Swansen
  2. Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics by C. P. Khare
  3. Dying to Look Good by Christine Hoza Farlow
  4. Asian Secrets of Health, Beauty and Relaxation by Sophie Benge, Luca Invernizzi Tettoni
  5. The Aromatherapy Encyclopedia: A Concise Guide to over 385 Plant Oils by Carol Schiller, David Schiller

Reference Links:

  1. Cucumber by Wikipedia
  2. Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) – Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics, published in Cosmetic Ingredient Review
  3. The anti-aging effects of Cucumbers by Dr. David Jockers, published in Natural News
  4. Exploring Cucumber Extract For Skin Rejuvenation by Naveed Akhtar, Arshad Mehmood, Barkat Ali Khan, Tariq Mahmood, Haji Muhammad Shoaib Khan and Tariq Saeed, Department of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur and the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan, Published in the African Journal of Biotechnology
  5. Phytochemical and therapeutic potential of cucumber by Mukherjee PK, Nema NK, Maity N, Sarkar BK, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, India, published in PubMed

Bergamot Oil

Bergamot essential oil is effective in treating addictions and depression. It is also an excellent aid for digestion and congestion.

Bergamot-bannerBergamot is a wonderful antidepressant and is a boon for people who suffer due to depression and are unable to experience and enjoy the richness of life, which reflects itself in liver congestion and gall bladder obstruction”, says Light Miller and Bryan Miller in their book Ayurveda and Aromatherapy. Botanically called as Citrus bergamia, Bergamot is another famous member of the Citrus family Rutaceae.

The rich, herbaceous and fruity-aromatic essential oil is cold pressed from the rind of the Bergamot fruit, which is also called in Ayurveda with the same name. Bergamot and its essential oil have been recommended in the Ayurvedic treatment for healing skin rashes, sores, acne, fever, obesity, depression, eczema, gingivitis, sore throat, flatulence, loss of appetite, bladder infections and compulsive behaviors.

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Historical uses and importance of Bergamot essential oil:

The name Bergamot is said to have come from the Italian province in Lombardy known as Bergamo. Few sources also state that this name is derived from the Turkish word ‘beg-armudi’, meaning ‘prince of pears’ or ‘prince’s pear’ or ‘the lord’s pear”. Well known to the world as an incredible ingredient of Earl Gray tea, Bergamot and its essential oil have been in the history of various cultures for its medicinal and culinary uses.

Indigenous to the Southeast Asian countries, Bergamot is also claimed as the native fruit from Greece. Later it was introduced to various European countries and is also found growing in Algeria, Morocco, Ivory Coast and Tunisia. About 80% of the world’s total Bergamot production is from the province of Reggio di Calabria in Italy.  It takes about 100 Bergamot oranges to extract 3 ounces of Bergamot essential oil.

The star-like white flowers, feathery leaves and the pear-shaped citrus fruit similar to a cross between a lime and orange have made many countries famous including the Calabria region of Italy. Certain genetic research studies reveal that Bergamot orange is likely to be a hybrid of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and lime (Citrus limetta).

Bergamot is also called as a cross between a grapefruit and an orange tree. These pulpy and juicy fruits are often used in cooking and the most popular dessert with Bergamot in the Middle East countries and America is the Turkish delight. Bergamot juice has been used in the traditional Calabrian medicine for the treatment of malaria and other chronic fevers.

This nutritious fruit and its essential oil were used in the traditional and folklore medicines for treating fever, urinary tract infections, acne, psoriasis, respiratory disorders, cystitis, depression, digestive problems, cold sores, chicken pox and anxiety.

Bergamot peel oil has been a fundamental component in various fragrance formulations. It has also been used as a prime ingredient in the original Eau de Cologne by Farina in Germany in the 18th century. It is also used in the production of marmalades, smokeless tobacco products, digestive liqueur named Liquore al Bergamotto and much more.

Chemical constituents or Gas Chromatography Report (GC) of Bergamot oil:

According to the Gas chromatography report, Bergamot oil constitutes of 19 chemical components that contribute to its fragrance, therapeutic attributes, consistency and quality of this citrus oil. Of which, Limonene contributes to the highest proportion of Bergamot oil constituents with about 39.6% of its total composition.

Just click on:

I trust that this must certainly help you in getting to know the exclusive information about these prime chemical constituents of Bergamot oil.

The table crafted below clearly depicts the unique nature and contributions of these biochemical constituents to the healing magnificence of Bergamot essential oil.

bergamot-gc-2Therapeutic properties of Bergamot essential oil:

The remedial attributes of Bergamot oil are anti-depressant, sedative, antiseptic, analgesic, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, antibiotic, vulnerary, cicatrisant, disinfectant, deodorant, antispasmodic, vermifuge, relaxant, anti-infectious and stimulant.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Bergamot essential oil:

Ayurveda is the oldest healing sciences on earth and it has its origin in India, the country with the oldest historical references. The Indian Hindu mythology has 4 major sacred books also known as Vedas, namely Yajur, Rig, Sama and Atharvaveda. Among these holy books, Ayurveda has been an integral part of Atharvaveda where about 114 verses talk about extensive Ayurvedic remedies and principles to lead a holistic life.

Ayurvedic philosophy was further strengthened by the pioneer Ayurvedic philosophers like Charaka (respected as the ‘Father of medicine’) and Sushruta (celebrated as the ‘Father of surgery’), who wrote Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita respectively. These two Ayurvedic encyclopedias were combined together and represented as Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita.

More than just a traditional healing system, Ayurveda has been held high as a holistic approach with a bundle of values and disciplines for leading a responsible life. Ayurveda trusts on Mother Nature and believes that illness is a result of imbalance between an individual and nature. With this idea, Ayurvedic remedies always stick on to natural medications, believing that nature has a cure for everything within it.

Ayurveda considers sickness as a significant opportunity to explore various aspects that contribute to the illness. It is a known fact that Mother Nature is built up of five vital elements, namely earth, water, fire, air and space. As a part of nature, human beings are also made up of these vital elements called as Panchamahabutas.

According to Ayurveda, every person is a unique creation with a unique individual constitution, which comprises of 3 fundamental biological forces known as doshas. They are vata, pitta and kapha doshas and each of these doshas are a combination of the 5 elements of nature.

Every Ayurvedic treatment begins with the identification of the Prakriti or the unique individual constitution. Every human being has a predominance of one of these doshas, which mainly determines the physical, psychological and behavioral attributes.

Balance between these doshas as per nature’s law indicates healthiness and imbalance due to lifestyle changes, food habits, climatic conditions and undisciplined actions causes sickness. Unique Ayurvedic remedies are prescribed for every individual based on their individual constitution and the root cause of a disease. This aids in diagnosing the illness at the first stage and preventing it in future also.

The prime Ayurvedic medications are herbs, plant essential oils, yoga, meditation, simple physical exercises, prayers, Pranayama and certain Ayurvedic techniques including Abhyanga or Ayurvedic massaging, an Ayurvedic routine, and Panchakarma (the Ayurvedic detox techniques.) With its heating and drying energies, Bergamot essential oil is known to pacify vata and kapha imbalances and augment pitta dosha.

The Ayurvedic health benefits of Bergamot essential oil are:

Bergamot-broucher--info-1. Relieves from fear, anxiety and depression:

Emotional barriers like anxiety, fear, depression and mood fluctuations have a greater impact on your routine and contribute to various adverse effects in your personal as well as professional life.

The reasons for these negative emotions are often inexpressive and at times we realize that we are depressed or put off for no valid reason. Whatever the causes may be, the remedy for such unhealthful feelings should be a proven anti-depressant that aids in uplifting the senses and stimulating positive energy.

Bergamot is one such excellent anti-depressant and a universally accepted mood enhancer. It is for these reasons; this essential oil is often used in Aromatherapy treatments and other Alternative medicinal practices.

Inhaling the magical aroma of this oil by adding 2 to 3 drops of Bergamot oil in vaporizer or diffuser can help in enhancing your mood, instill a feeling of newness and stimulate the secretion of hormones that help in overcoming such difficult moments.

This has been proven in a Korean study that analyzed the effects of Bergamot oil on pulse rate and blood pressure. The study further concluded that inhaling the energizing aroma of Citrus bergamia oil is extremely effective in lessening psychological stress responses, blood pressure in people with hypertension and the level of serum cortisol.

You can start your own home spa just with a small collection of invigorating essential oils like Bergamot. Massaging your system with 5 drops of Bergamot oil, 5 drops of Neroli oil, 5 drops of Cypress oil and 5 drops of Juniper oil along with 20 ml of sweet almond oil is the best way to fortify your senses, augment your blood circulation, calm your muscles, strengthen your mind and gift yourself with absolute tranquility.

Followed by this massage, enhance your energy level by taking a warm bath diluted with 5 drops of Bergamot oil, 5 drops of Ylang Ylang oil and 5 drops of Lavender oil. What’s next? You are done for the day and it’s time to realize that your fear, feelings of insecurity, anxiety, stress, depression and other negative thoughts have vanished just like a mirage in a desert with the sweet, mesmerizing, fruity and enchanting fragrance of Bergamot oil.

2. Supports nervous functions and boosts brain power:

An article by Robert Tisserand just left me amazed, where a student who have been studying about essential oils for 15 years have noticed the improvement in her husband, a stroke patient especially after the use of Bergamot oil on his pillow.

Robert has also added to this experience by stating that “In one rat study, bergamot essential oil inhibited the damage caused by “focal ischemia” (the same type of damage caused by stroke).” He also says that if any essential oil can be helpful in supporting stroke patients, then it would be Bergamot oil. Various researches state that the molecules of the inhaled essential oils reach the brain through the nasal passages and have effectiveness in treating certain neurological diseases.

A 2009 study on the effect of Bergamot essential oil on brain damage in rats, published in the International Review of Neurobiology, established that “Bergamot oil resulted in a significant reduction of tissue death throughout the brain, especially in the medial striatum and the motor cortex areas.” Few other studies have also proved that Bergamot oil decreases neuronal damage.

Adding 2 to 3 drops of Bergamot oil in your diffuser, vaporizer, pillows, handkerchief or a tissue paper placed beside you can help in improving your blood circulation, augmenting the functions of your nervous system, boosting your brain power and keep you healthy and energized.

Bryan Miller and Light Miller in their book ‘Ayurveda and Aromatherapy’ have shared about the miraculous transformation of their teenage son after the use of Bergamot oil. It was said that one of their sons in high school was undergoing severe depression and after Light Miller started adding few drops of Bergamot oil and Lemongrass oil on his pillow, there was an immediate change in his approach and he successfully graduated.

3. Combats and protects the system from harmful microbes:

The essential oil of Bergamot has anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties that can assist in killing existing microbes and preventing the growth of new microbes. A 2009 study published in the Journal of Applied Microbiology concluded that the blend of Bergamot and Orange essential oil tested against two bacterial strains resistant to vancomycin, proved effective in inhibiting bacterial growths. It was also said that these oils are an excellent alternative to chemical-based bactericides.

Few other studies conducted in Italy proved that Bergamot essential oil exhibited antifungal activity against Candida fungus strains and Prototheca, which is a yeast-like alga. Adding 2 to 3 drops of Bergamot oil in warm bathing water can act as a protective shield against bacterial and fungal infections.

You can also mix 2 drops of Bergamot oil with 2 drops of Orange oil and 2 ml of Coconut oil and apply it on acne, candida infections, athlete’s foot, ringworm, and on wounds for preventing it from becoming septic. Being a disinfectant and antiseptic, Bergamot oil aids in healing wounds quickly.

4. Nourishes the skin enormously:

Just like other citrus oils, Bergamot essential oil has enormous amount of Vitamin C and is extremely good for nurturing the skin. The cicatrisant properties of this oil assist in fading away scars, difficult marks left by pimples, boils and wounds.

Massaging your skin with 1 drop of Bergamot oil, 1 drop of Frankincense oil and 1 drop of Lavender oil along with 1.5 ml of olive oil can help in uniform and even distribution of melanin and other pigments in the skin and granting you a gorgeous look and an enriched skin tone.

With its antiseptic, vulnerary and disinfectant properties, Bergamot essential oil is one among the best oils for treating various skin problems like eczema, psoriasis, cold sores, itching, wounds, cracks, skin ulcers and other skin infections.

A Chinese study on Bergamot oil along with Boxthorn oil on the skin and hair growth in mice, concluded that “the extract increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and collagen in the skin, as well as promoting hair growth.”

5. Aids in shedding your extra pounds:

Obesity or weight gain is an imbalance of kapha dosha, which is characterized by the heavy, slow, cool and sluggish attributes. Such vitiations are often treated with the help of essential oils that have warming, stimulating, energizing and heating energies and Bergamot is among those essential oils for reducing excess fat and water deposits in the system with its kapha-reducing attributes, which otherwise leads to overweight or obesity.

The presence of limonene and other therapeutic properties in Bergamot oil promotes the functional capabilities of hypothalamus, which is the satiety center of the brain. By doing this, the feeling of being full or the natural appetite towards food decreases gradually and controls the cravings for food.

Massaging your system with 5 drops of Bergamot oil, 5 drops of Orange oil, 5 drops of Black pepper oil, 5 drops of Lemongrass oil along with 10 ml of coconut oil can help in reducing your weight slowly and steadily.

6. Helps treat addictions and other off-putting habits:

Bergamot is such a sacred oil that can help in attaining holiness and experience the feeling of oneness with the divine power. Inhaling the sanctified aroma of this oil by adding 3 to 4 drops to your diffuser or scented candle can assist in opening your senses, understanding the universe, granting the power to tackle challenges, and having complete control over your mind and body.

It is for these important reasons, Bergamot essential oil is used in treating compulsive habits, addictions like smoking, use of drugs and alcohol. This oil encourages the mind by opening up the heart chakra, which is responsible for appreciating the love for self and for others.

Other health benefits:

Bergamot essential oil is also effective in treating colic, intestinal worms, rheumatic pain, spasms, fever, irregular bowel movements, body odor, anorexia, constipation, urinary infections, hysteria, hair fall, inflammation and parasitic infections.

Disclaimer:

This information is meant only for educational purposes. It is not intended to diagnose or prevent any health conditions and substitute any other prescribed medications or professional medical advice. We are not healthcare experts and this info is only for bringing the importance of Ayurvedic healing practices under limelight.

Do not make use of essential oils internally and ensure that you always dilute essential oils in appropriate carrier oils before using it for topical applications. This is mainly because organic and unadulterated essential oils are very concentrated liquids and may cause allergic reactions if used on the skin directly. Consult your Ayurvedic practitioner/ healthcare expert before choosing the perfect essential oils for your unique individual constitution or prakriti along with your state of health.

The MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) of Bergamot oil is readily available for your enhanced safety and better usage.

Gas Chromatography Report (GC analysis) of Bergamot oil.

Bergamot Essential Oil – Possible Skin Issues:

bergamot-logoGreener Life Diamond – Bio-Healthy Score => 3 – Possible Skin Issues:

See => http://www.essentialdepot.com/GreenerLifeDiamond.html

Bergamot oil has photosensitizing effects. This may cause irritation and burning of the skin, when exposed to visible sunlight after the topical application of this oil up to 72 hours of use. The fundamental reason behind this is the reaction of the photoactive chemical constituents that absorbs light, results in toxicity through molecular changes.

Studies establish that the phototoxic chemical constituents in Bergamot oil are Bergaptene, Bergamotene and other furocoumarins. It is also stated that furocoumarins (Psoralens) attribute to carcinogenic, photomutagenic, phototoxic and melanogenic properties of Bergamot oil.

Interaction of these components with the sunlight obtains the ultra violet radiation (UV rays A and B), which might cause negative reaction on the skin, leading to chronic sunburn, skin irritation, hyperpigmentation, development of skin lesions, Berloque dermatitis, alterations in the cellular structure of the skin that may cause skin cancer, following the development of covalent DNA adducts in UV-A or solar light.

However the International Fragrance Association (IFRA) states that the safe dilution level for the application of Bergamot oil on parts exposed to sunlight is 0.4% (or less), which is about 2.4 drops per ounce of any other carrier oils. Furocoumarin or bergaptene-free Bergamot oils are said to reflect comparatively reduced number of skin complaints owing to phototoxicity, than the natural Bergamot oils.

Surprisingly, Furocoumarins are also remedially used in combination with the long-wave ultraviolet light therapy for the treatment of vitiligo, mycosis fungoides and psoriasis. This caution is relevant to direct skin applications like massage oils, balms, creams and lotions and not for cleansing products like shampoos and soaps.

Reference Links Substantiating Possible Skin Issues of Bergamot Oil:

  1. Assessment report on Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, aetheroleum , by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products, European Medicines Agency
  2. In vitro photostability and photosensitizing properties of bergamot oil. Effects of a cinnamate sunscreen by Morlière P, Hüppe G, Averbeck D, Young AR, Santus R, Dubertret L, published in the Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology
  3. Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics by Ikhlas A. Khan and Ehab A. Abourashed.
  4. Bergamot oil by Drugs.com
  5. Perfume Phototoxicity by Francis N. Marzulli and Howard I. Majbach, presented before the New York Chapter, Clifton, N.J.

Thought for the day:

Nature is relentless and unchangeable, and it is indifferent as to whether its hidden reasons and actions are understandable to man or not. -Galileo Galilei

Suggested Reading:

  1. Bergamot Oil: American Pharmaceutical Association Monograph No. 2 by Donald Davis Mossman, Marston Taylor Bogert
  2. HEALING POWERS OF BERGAMOT OIL (The Aromatherapy Professional: Healing with Essential Oils) by KG Stiles
  3. Citrus bergamia: Bergamot and its Derivatives (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles) From CRC Press
  4. Essential Oils For Weight Loss & Top Essential Oil Recipes: Guide to Essential Oil Recipes (Essential Oils Box Set) (Volume 2) by Lindsey P
  5. Bergamot Essential Oil (Aromatherapy Book 48) by Miriam Kinai

Reference Links:

  1. Bergamot Orange by Wikipedia
  2. Bergamot essential oil by Wikipedia
  3. Health Benefits of Bergamot essential oil by Organic Facts
  4. Essential oils, Stroke patients and Bergamot by Robert Tisserand
  5. Prevention of Glutamate Accumulation and Upregulation of Phospho-Akt may Account for Neuroprotection Afforded by Bergamot Essential Oil against Brain Injury Induced by Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat, by Department of Pharmacobiology and Center of Neuropharmacology of Normal and Pathological Neuronal Plasticity, UCADH, University of Calabria, Italy published in PubMed

Betel Leaf Oil

Have you ever thought whether nature has a heart? If yes, then here’s your answer. The heart shaped Betel leaf is beckoned as the ‘Golden heart of nature’. Dating back to 7000 BC, Betel is one among those oldest divine herbs bestowed on mankind.

Betel-leaf-bannerBesides numerous health benefits, these appealing leaves are a symbol of status and hospitality for greeting Kings, nobles and guests in the cultural heritage of India. Botanically called as Piper betle, Betel vine is a member of the pepper family Piperaceae.

Tambool, Saptashira, Nagavallari and Nagini are Sanskrit names of Betel leaf and is commonly called as Paan in Hindi and the English names are Betel pepper, Betel vine and Betel. In Ayurveda, Tambool or Tambuli has been mentioned in numerous Ayurvedic texts including Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita, where these glossy leaves have been prescribed for enhancing metabolic functions, reducing inflammation, expelling mucus, strengthening the heart muscles, improving appetite, purifying blood, treating ulcer, nosebleed, acne, bronchitis, halitosis, bleeding gums, headache and reproductive problems.

Historical uses and importance of Betel leaf and its essential oil:

Betel leaf has a rich historical charisma and is said to have been indigenous to South East Asian countries including Malaysia and India. Chewing Betel leaves with areca nut is a cultural tradition in most of the Asian countries for it’s said to give a euphoric feeling that stimulates the mind and grants instant energy for working.

According to the study of numerous Anthropologists, the traces of Betel leaves were said have been found in spirit caves of Northwest Thailand, which dates back to 5500 to 7000 B.C. The oldest historical book of Sri Lanka, ‘Mahawamsa’ written in Pali talks about the leaves of the Betel vine. There are certain other findings in human skeletons dating back to 3000 BC in countries like Philippines and Indonesia, indicating the use of Betel leaves even before thousands of years.

The traditional practice of chewing Betel leaves with areca nut has been mentioned in the pre-historic books of the Indian mythology and the most predominant among them are Raghuvamsa written by Kalidas and Kamsutra written by Vatsyayana. In one of the oldest text named Sakta-tantra, Betel leaves have been denoted as one of the important ways of attaining siddhi or abundant blessings from the Almighty.

In these ancient texts Betel leaves were referred as Tambulika, Tambuladhikara, Tambuladayini, and Tambuladyaka and so on. Ayurvedic encyclopedias like Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita have also indicated the many uses of Betel leaves. In chapters 28-46 of Sushruta Samhita Betel leaves are described as “aromatic, sharp, hot, acrid and beneficial for voice, laxative, appetizer, beside this they pacify vata and aggravate pitta.”

The primeval Ayurvedic texts also highlight the aphrodisiac properties of Betel leaf that aid in treating male and female reproductive problems. The Chinese Traditional medicine also used Betel leaves for its warm and spicy nature that aided in the treatment of cough, itching, inflammation, headache and respiratory infections.

Betel leaves were used in various medical preparations of the Unani medicine and was used as a brain tonic, and in treating throat infections, cleansing the blood and for enhancing the appetite.

Betel leaves were also used in the traditional healing system for treating various health disorders like conjunctivitis, leucorrhea, rheumatism, ringworm, constipation, infertility, bad breath, ottorrhoea, cough and asthma. Singers chewed these leaves to enhance their voice.

Therapeutic properties and chemical components of Betel leaf essential oil:

The primary ingredients of the essential oil of Betel leaf are cadinene, sesquiterpene, chavicol, geraniol, α-thujene, terpinolene, chavibetol, phenyl propane, trans β-ocimene, safrole, caryophyllene, cineole, cadinol, eugenol, camphene, limonene, pinene, and eugenyl acetate.

These chemical constituents contribute to its remedial values like antifungal, antiseptic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, gastroprotective, radio-protective, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, galactogogue, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, carminative, analgesic and nervous stimulant.

Ayurvedic health benefits of Betel leaf essential oil:

Veda means knowledge and Vedic studies were strongly suggested for people during the primordial times for gaining knowledge on various aspects including reading and writing skills, discipline, war skills and spiritual values. Ayurveda is much more than a traditional healing system and the word Ayurveda literally means knowledge of life.

The 4 major Vedas of India is like the pillars of the Indian mythology with the world’s richest cultural heritage. They are Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Veda, and among these Ayurveda has its origin from Atharva Veda. This ancient medicinal science is said to have been blessed by the God of Medicine, known as Acharya Dhanvantari.

The main aim of Ayurvedic healing is longevity and healthy aging through a disciplined life and prevention of illnesses with the use of natural remedies like herbal remedies, plant essential oils, yoga, meditation, simple physical exercises, Ayurvedic routine, prayers and other established Ayurvedic techniques including Panchakarma or the Ayurvedic detoxification therapies, Abhyanga or the art of Ayurvedic massaging and many more.

The most treasured Ayurvedic writings include Sushruta Samhita, Charaka Samhita and Ashtangha Hridaya Samhita. These texts throw light on the basic Ayurvedic concepts and its detailed healing mechanism. Charaka known as the father of medicine represents the Atreya School of physicians and shared his medical intelligence on pathogenesis, anatomy, physiology, etiology, disease symptoms, and diagnosis.

Acharya Sushruta is called as the father of surgery and corresponds to the Dhanvantari School of surgeons. He explains about the classification of wounds, burns, fractures, amputation, rectal surgery, plastic surgery and about many types of surgical equipments.

The credit of introducing Abhyanga or Ayurvedic massaging based on the marma points in the body also goes to Sushruta. The third Ayurvedic text Ashtangha Hridaya contains the medicinal values of both Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita.

According to the Ayurvedic philosophy, the major principles of Ayurveda include the 5 vital elements of nature known as Panchamahabutas, 3 dynamic energies known as tridosha, discarding of waste called as malas and the important organs of the body, known as dhatus.

This conventional therapy believes that the earth is made up of five fundamental elements known as space, earth, fire, water, and air. Similarly, the whole thing in this world is also made up of the same five elements also called as the building blocks of nature.

By nature, every person has a unique individual constitution, named as Prakriti and it comprises of three biological forces known as doshas. They are vata (air and space), pitta (fire and water) and kapha (earth and water).

Among these, vata dosha is accountable for the activities of the nervous system including the central and autonomic functions. Pitta dosha is responsible for metabolic functions, tissue building, endocrinal functions and the body temperature. Kapha energy is in charge of physical fitness, binding power, sustenance and reproductive functions.

Absolute balance between these doshas as per nature’s law signifies health and disparity caused by irregular food habits, detrimental practices, climatic conditions and certain other factors leads to sickness.

Ayurvedic remedies are prescribed in order to balance these doshic vitiations. Betel leaf essential oil is known for its remedial properties that pacify kapha and vata dosha and increase pitta body type.

The Ayurvedic health benefits of Betel leaf oil are:

Betel-leaf-broucher1. Ayurvedic approach for refreshing your breath:

Betel leaves are an excellent Ayurvedic aid for refreshing the breath instantly even after heavy meals or especially after having food items that may possess strong odor like garlic or onion. Chewing betel leaves is a customary practice in India since the traditional times mainly for its potent to prevent bad breath, enhance digestion, support healthy gums, assist strong teeth and combat germs and other micro-organisms that cause oral infections.

According to numerous research studies, Betel leaves and its essential oil are the best remedies for treating plaque, dental decay, dental caries and other oral infections caused by bacteria and other harmful micro-organisms.

According to a study on Piper betle, published in the Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, “Dental caries is a chronic endogenous infection caused by the normal oral commensally flora. The carious lesion is the result of demineralization of enamel and later of dentine by acids produced by plaque microorganisms as they metabolize dietary carbohydrates.”

The primary bacteria responsible for tooth decay is Streptococcus mutans and certain other researchers have concluded that the aqueous extracts present in Betel leaves have the oral protective action and potent to combat such bacterial growths along with various acid-producing oral pathogens.

Gargling every morning and night with one cup of warm water mixed with 1 drop of Betel leaf oil can act as a protective shield against tooth decay, plaque, halitosis or unpleasant odor in the mouth, harmful effects of bacteria, germs and other oral pathogens. This also helps in sweetening your breath, arresting oral bleeding, strengthening your gums and fortifying your teeth.

2. Keeps away microbes and its hazardous infections:

The essential oil extracted from betel leaves prevent the system from the dangerous effects of pathogens and micro-organisms and kills the existing microbes and treats the infections caused by such harmful bodies.

A 1991 study on the ‘Biological activity of the essential oil of Piper betle L., by S. C. Garg and Rajshree Jain states that “The essential oil from the leaves of Piper betle L. has been found in vitro to be highly active against the growth of four keratinophilic fungi, Arthroderma benhamiae, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Ctenomyces serratus and five pathogenic Aspergilli. Bacterial organisms Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae were also found to be susceptible to the oil.”

Certain studies also state that Betel leaves and its extracts also possess bactericidal activity on various urinary tract pathogenic bacteria including Enterocococcus faecalis, koseri, C.fruendi, Klebsiella pnemoniae.

The molecule sterol present in these leaves is said to be responsible for the anti-bacterial activity of Betel leaf oil. This contributes to its effectiveness against numerous gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It also contains anti-fungal activity and proves challenging to fungi and the resulting fungal infections.

This property of Betel leaf oil helps in treating related skin problems like acne, wounds becoming septic, ringworms, athletes’ foot and certain other infectious diseases like dermatophytosis, which is caused by highly specialized fungi known as the dermatophytes and this disease occurs mainly on the keratinized parts of the body like nail, skin and hair.

A study on the “Evaluation of Anti-dermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Allamanda cathertica and their combination: An in vitro and in vivo stud” published in the International Journal of Pharm Tech., states that the chloroform extract of piper betel shows the much more efficiency than the methanol fraction against dermatophytes because of presence of non-polar components in the fraction.

Gently applying 2 drops of Betel leaf oil blended with 1 drop of Peppermint oil and 1 drop of turmeric oil along with 2 ml of coconut oil on the affected parts can help in relieving wounds and infections quickly along by combating and preventing the growth of destructive microbes. You can also 2 drops of Betel leaf oil to your bathing water to protect you from germs, prevent body odor and grant ultimate refreshment all through the day.

3. Natural digestive aid:

Chewing of betel leaf is considered as an edible digestive aid since the traditional times for its carminative, intestinal, anti-flatulent and gastro-protective properties. The essential oil extracted from these aromatic leaves are also claimed to possess these therapeutic properties, as essential oils are nothing but the life essence or vital life force of the plants.

Massaging your abdomen with 2 drops of Betel leaf oil mixed with 2 drops of Peppermint oil and 2 ml of sesame oil can be an excellent digestive assistance. This helps in promoting the secretion of saliva, gastric juices and digestive acids and it also supports in producing the peristaltic waves, which is highly significant for hassle-free digestion.

This Ayurvedic massaging along with inhaling the warm aroma of Betel leaf oil by adding 1 drop of this oil to your hankie or a tissue paper can aid in treating constipation, diarrhea, gas pain, flatulence, intestinal spasms and sluggish digestion.

Certain researches have also established that the essential oil of Betel leaf has been highly effective against hookworms (Bunostomum trigonocephalum) and tapeworms (Taenia solium) than the accepted synthetic anthelmintics like hexyl resorcinol and piperazine phosphate.

4. Instant remedy for respiratory problems:

The best Ayurvedic remedy for relieving cold, cough and breathing difficulties is applying warmed Betel leaves on the chest after soaking it in mustard oil. Juice extracted from crushed Betel leaves mixed with honey is another traditional remedy for loosening tough phlegm deposits and relieving severe cough.

Betel leaf oil has expectorant properties that aids in expelling accumulated mucus and phlegm especially in the lungs and the respiratory passages. Along with this, the antimicrobial properties of this help in killing contagious microbes in the system like bacteria and viruses that aggravate respiratory infections, if left uncontrolled. Adding 2 drops of Betel leaf oil in steam inhalation and inhaling this medicated steam can help in treating nasal congestion, chest congestion and other cough.

Mix 2 drops of Betel leaf oil with 2 drops of Eucalyptus oil and 2 ml of mustard oil and warm it slightly. Gently massage your throat, chest and back with this medicated oil to eject excess water deposits in the body leading to the amassing of phlegm and mucus deposits. The micro-organisms in the body are eliminated through excessive sweating and urination after taking up these Ayurvedic remedies with Betel leaf oil.

5. Relieves rheumatic conditions and pain:

One amongst the three Ayurvedic schools (Sushruta Samhita, Charaka Samhita and Ashtangha Hridaya Samhita) has recommended the use of betel leaves in the treatment of severe pain and aches, mainly originating from the nervous system. This pain-relieving attribute of Betel leaf is due its analgesic, numbing and cooling properties.

Rheumatism is often regarded as a health disorder caused mainly due to kapha vitiations. Excess of kapha dosha due to changes in food habits, climatic conditions and other lifestyle changes leads to stagnation of water in the system, built up of toxins, inflammation, pain, irritation and certain other symptoms. Betel leaf essential oil with its warming properties increases the heat energy in the system and reduces excess of kapha dosha.

Massaging the affected parts with 3 drops of Betel leaf oil mixed with 1.5 ml of coconut oil can help in alleviating the surplus water deposits in the system by promoting frequent urination with its diuretic properties. You can also add 4 to 5 drops of this oil in hot or cold compress and use it gently on the painful parts. This can also help in relieving headache, lumbago or lower back pain, arthritis pain, swelling, redness and muscular tension.

6. Treats various skin disorders:

Betel leaf juice mixed with turmeric powder is a trusted folklore medicine for treating wounds, boils, acne, cuts and other minor injuries. With its powerful antiseptic and antimicrobial properties, Betel leaf and its essential oil have been proven effective in treating allergies, skin ulceration, nosebleeds, body odor, itchiness, vaginal wetness, acne and other skin infections.

Mix 2 drops of Betel leaf oil with 2 drops of Lavender oil and 2 ml of Jojoba oil and apply it on the infected parts and leave it for half an hour. Wash it thoroughly with a mild skin cleanser. 1 drop of Betel leaf oil added to a cup of warm water can be used as a safe genital wash for treating vaginal wetness, combating germs and other micro-organisms in the discharge, and for supporting genital shrinkage in women, especially after delivery.

Other health benefits:

Betel leaf essential oil is also an effective Ayurvedic remedy for treating reproductive problems with its aphrodisiac properties, diabetes with its anti-diabetic properties, urinary problems with its diuretic properties, constipation in children with its carminative properties, halitosis and other oral problems with its disinfectant and anti-microbial properties.

Disclaimer:

This article is meant only for the use of education and information. It is not intended to cure or prevent any medical condition or replace any prescription medicines. This is only an initiative to spread the time-honored wisdom and medical excellence of Ayurveda and we are not healthcare professionals.

Remember to consult your Ayurvedic professional/healthcare practitioner before selecting the appropriate essential oils for your state of health and prakriti or unique individual constitution.

Avoid ingesting or using essential oils internally. Make sure that you dilute Ayurvedic essential oils in suitable carrier oils before topical application. This is because pure and organic essential oils are the vital life force of plants and are highly concentrated liquids.

Thought for the day:

In every walk with nature one receives far more than he seeks.  -John Muir

Suggested Reading:

  1. Betelvine (Piper Betle L.): Genetic diversity, Phytochemical analysis, Bioactive compounds, Antimicrobial activities, Betelvine by Mofizuddin Mollah, Monzur Hossain, Rafiul Islam
  2. Betel leaf Cultivation – A Potential Crop for Sustainable Income: An In-depth Study on Economy of Betel leaf Cultivation and Marketing with reference to Nadia District, West Bengal, India by Sayan Ghosh, Asit Maiti
  3. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications by Christian Ratsch, Albert Hofmann
  4. Antimutagenic and Bactericidal effect of betel vine ethanol extract: Antimutagenic and Bactericidal Property of Ethanol extract of Piper betel L. (Betel vine) leaf by Mukesh Singh
  5. The Encyclopedia of Aphrodisiacs: Psychoactive Substances for Use in Sexual Practices by Christian Rätsch, Claudia Müller-Ebeling

Reference Links:

  1. Betel by Wikipedia
  2. Golden Heart of the Nature: Piper betle L., D. Pradhan, Dr. K. A. Suri, Dr. D. K. Pradhan, and P. Biswasroy, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine published in the Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
  3. Effects of betel chewing on the central and autonomic nervous systems by Nai-Shin Chu MD, published in the Journal of Biomedical Science
  4. Betel leaves , Ayurvedic herbs and their healing power by Dr. Satish Kulkarni published in NZhealth.net
  5. Biological activity of the essential oil of Piper betle L., by S. C. Garg and Rajshree Jainpublished in the Journal of Essential Oil Research